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A report of AMR and AMU data (and data collection activities) in livestock and humans in the six participating countries, and with indication to its quality, comparability and purpose.

Mesa-Varona, O; Boone, I; Tenhagen, B-A


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    "description": "<p>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a serious and global threat to public health that requires<br>\nurgent actions all over the world. ARDIG is a One Health European Joint Programme (EJP) project<br>\nwhich is carried out under the need to increase knowledge about AMR (1). The project aims to<br>\nunderstand the dynamic of AMR by assessing national trends, Farm/hospital trends and isolate<br>\ntrends from six different European countries (Spain, Norway, Germany, Netherlands, France and<br>\nUnited Kingdom) with the final objective of developing strategies that help to reduce the spread of<br>\nresistant bacteria at European level.<br>\nThis report is focussed on defining and describing available epidemiological data from humans,<br>\nanimals (especially cattle, poultry and pig), food and environment and data collection systems in the<br>\n5 EU countries, Norway and in Europe addressing the task 1.1. of WP1 ARDIG of exploring and<br>\ncollecting data available on AMR and AMU.<br>\nSurveillance and monitoring systems are highly relevant to control AMU and AMR being one out of<br>\nfive strategies of Global Action Plan (GAP) of WHO(2).<br>\nHowever, major challenges need to be faced up in order to harmonize data on AMU and AMR area.<br>\nThus, AMR surveillance and monitoring systems vary substantially in the data type collected among<br>\nsectors such as antimicrobials tested, type of samples, sampling design, laboratory methods and<br>\nchoice of breakpoints, analysis and reporting. Likewise, AMU data is difficult to obtain and AMU<br>\ncollection systems are based on different sources such as sales or wholesale distribution, imports,<br>\nproduction, clinical or prescribing data (3).<br>\nThe harmonization process between AMU and AMR, which entails a series of difficulties based on<br>\ncharacteristics previously defined, is of great relevance to enable to compare data.</p>", 
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