Journal article Open Access

Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke: Recent Developments in Positron Emission Tomography.

Janssen, Bieneke; Vugts, Danielle J; Funke, Uta; Molenaar, Ger T; Kruijer, Perry S; van Berckel, Bart NM; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Windhorst, Albert D

Neuroinflammation is thought to play a pivotal role in many diseases affecting the brain, including Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke. Neuroinflammation is characterised predominantly by microglial activation, which can be visualised using positron emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is the target for imaging of neuroinflammation using PET. In this review, recent preclinical and clinical research using PET in Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke is summarised. In addition, new molecular targets
for imaging of neuroinflammation, such as monoamine oxidases, adenosine receptors and cannabinoid receptor type 2, are discussed.

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