Journal article Open Access

Evaluation of Changes in Maternal Blood Sugar and Renal Function Tests during Gestational Period

Satyam Prakash, Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Jitendra Kumar Singh, Khushbu Yadav, Basant Kumar Yadav

Background and Objectives

The direct effects of altered maternal glucose metabolism and renal impairment from early pregnancy onwards with complications on mother as well as fetal growth and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. It is crucial to understand the biochemical changes to appropriately interpret common laboratory tests for evaluating renal disease and hyperglycemia in women during pregnancy. Thus, the study was focused to estimate the variability in blood glucose and renal functions as well as its association with BMI during pregnancy in Southern Terai of Province No. 2, Nepal.

Materials and Methods

Fasting blood glucose was determined by enzymatic (GOD/POD) method, Serum Urea by Urease-Bertholet’s Method, Serum creatinine by Jaffe’s Reaction Method, and Uric acid by Uricase method. All the biochemical parameters were analyzed using semi-automatic biochemical analyzer (Humalyzer 3500). Statistical analysis of the collected data was carried out using SPSS version 20. The p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The  mean with standard deviation for  fasting blood glucose (94.01+30.88; 99.71+23.97; 104.77+21.37) urea (23.22+7.89; 18.22+8.98; 20.64+9.09), creatinine (0.68+0.24; 0.65+0.20; 0.58+0.28), uric acid level with (3.14+0.93, 3.74+0.95, 3.95+0.85) was depicted in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy.  Glucose and BMI were positively correlated and highly significant (r=0.191; p<0.01). BMI with urea was negatively correlated and was found to be highly significant(r= -0.196; p<0.01). Also, there was a negative correlation between BMI and Creatinine and was found to be significant (r=-0.132; p<0.01).  But, the association of uric acid was positively correlated and statistically insignificant.


Blood glucose and uric acid gradually start increasing trimester-wise with the advancement of the gestational period. But, the mean urea level was decreased in the 2nd trimester as compared to the 1st and 3rd trimester. Also, small variation for creatinine level was found in different trimesters of pregnancy. 

The association of Glucose, uric acid, and BMI were positively correlated and statistically insignificant whereas Urea and BMI was negatively correlated and highly significant. Also, there was a negative correlation between BMI and Creatinine and was found to be significant.

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