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Review of the Indo-Pacific Flasherwrasses of the genus Paracheilinus (Perciformes: Labridae), with descriptions of three new species

Allen, Gerald R.; Erdmann, Mark V.; Yusmalinda, Ni Luh A.

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        <foaf:name>Allen, Gerald R.</foaf:name>
        <foaf:givenName>Gerald R.</foaf:givenName>
            <foaf:name>Department of Aquatic Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Perth, Western Australia 6986</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Erdmann, Mark V.</foaf:name>
        <foaf:givenName>Mark V.</foaf:givenName>
            <foaf:name>Conservation International Indonesia Marine Program, Jl. Dr. Muwardi No. 17, Renon, Denpasar 80235 Indonesia</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Yusmalinda, Ni Luh A.</foaf:name>
        <foaf:givenName>Ni Luh A.</foaf:givenName>
            <foaf:name>Indonesian Biodiversity Research Centre, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali 80361, Indonesia</foaf:name>
    <dct:title>Review of the Indo-Pacific Flasherwrasses of the genus Paracheilinus (Perciformes: Labridae), with descriptions of three new species</dct:title>
    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="">2016</dct:issued>
    <dcat:keyword>coral reefs</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>DNA barcoding</dcat:keyword>
    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="">2016-02-22</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;The Indo-Pacific labrid fish genus &lt;em&gt;Paracheilinus &lt;/em&gt;now contains 20 species. Most of the currently known species inhabit the mega-diverse East Indian region including &lt;em&gt;Paracheilinus angulatus, P. carpenteri, P. cyaneus, P. filamentosus, P. flavianalis, P. lineopunctatus, P. nursalim, P. rennyae, P. togeanensis, P. walton&lt;/em&gt;, as well as three recent discoveries described as new species herein. Five species are known from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, including &lt;em&gt;P. attenuatus &lt;/em&gt;(Seychelles and Kenya), &lt;em&gt;P. hemitaeniatus&lt;/em&gt; (Madagascar and South Africa), &lt;em&gt;P. mccoskeri&lt;/em&gt; (Kenya, Comoro Islands and Arabian Gulf to Andaman Sea), &lt;em&gt;P. octotaenia&lt;/em&gt; (Red Sea), and &lt;em&gt;P. piscilineatus&lt;/em&gt; (Mauritius). The remaining two species, &lt;em&gt;P. bellae&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;P. rubricaudalis&lt;/em&gt;, are mainly confined to Micronesia/Marshall Islands and PNG/Fiji/Vanuatu, respectively. Members of the genus are typically distinguished on the basis of their caudal-fin and dorsal-fin shapes, the presence or absence of elongate filamentous dorsal-fin rays, and, in particular, the color of terminal-phase (TP) males, including their dramatic nuptial-display patterns. &lt;em&gt;Paracheilinus paineorum&lt;/em&gt; n. sp. is described from 8 specimens, 43.1-70.0 mm SL, collected in Indonesia (southwestern Flores, Sulawesi, Nusa Penida, East Borneo, and Seribu Islands) in depths of 10-65 m. It is closely related to the allopatric &lt;em&gt;P. filamentosus&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;P. xanthocirritus&lt;/em&gt; n. sp., differing mainly in coloration (particularly the bright red dorsal-fin markings) and larger maximum size (to at least 70 mm SL). &lt;em&gt;Paracheilinus xanthocirritus&lt;/em&gt; n. sp. is described from 12 specimens, 33.9-49.3 mm SL, collected in the South China Sea at the Anambas Islands of Indonesia and Brunei in depths of 15-25 m. In contrast to the closely related &lt;em&gt;P. paineorum&lt;/em&gt; n. sp., TP males of this species have a mostly yellow dorsal fin lacking red markings. The two new species further differ from &lt;em&gt;P. filamentosus &lt;/em&gt;by having a narrower interorbital and a shorter caudal peduncle. A third new species,&lt;em&gt; Paracheilinus alfiani&lt;/em&gt;, n. sp., is described on the basis of two specimens, 48.8 and 49.3 mm SL, from Lembata Island in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. It is characterized by a rounded and relatively tall dorsal fin without elongate filamentous rays, a slightly rounded caudal fin, and distinctive TP male coloration. In addition to the new species descriptions, a diagnosis and color illustrations are included for all members of the genus. We also present a key to the species and a neighbor-joining tree of mitochondrial DNA sequences which clarifies the genetic relationships among species, revealing four discrete species complexes within the genus. &lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
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