Journal article Open Access

Dengue: revisión de la literatura actual y perspectivas a futuro

Ríos Nava, Juan Alberto; Rodríguez García, José Alejandro

Other(s)
Mandujano Sánchez, Angélica Irene

RESUMEN

El dengue es una enfermedad infecciosa, estacional y con potencial epidémico causada por diferentes serotipos del virus del dengue (DENV 1-4) que son transmitidos a los humanos por el mosquito Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus.  Es una enfermedad con una alta carga de incidencia mundial ya que afecta aproximadamente a 400 millones de personas al año. Es un problema importante, debido a que la mayor tasa de incidencia es en la edad productiva (entre los 25 y 44 años).  El diagnóstico es principalmente clínico, pero las pruebas de laboratorio pueden ser útiles, sobre todo si se buscan anticuerpos específicos como IgG e IgM. El aislamiento viral, la detección de ARN viral o de antígenos como el NS1 son otras pruebas de laboratorio que ayudan al diagnóstico. El síndrome clínico clásico de dengue se presenta con un aumento abrupto de temperatura que se puede acompañar de astenia, cefalea, mialgias, artralgias, náuseas, vómito, diarrea y rash. Las fases que comúnmente siguen al periodo de infección son la febril, crítica y de resolución.  El tratamiento es sintomático, siendo los antipiréticos y la hidratación las bases de este. Aunque actualmente no hay un antiviral que trate la infección, existen muchos en investigación. El objetivo de esta revisión es proveer información actual sobre el estado de esta enfermedad, así como las futuras opciones terapéuticas que actualmente se encuentran en investigación.

 

 

ABSTRACT

Dengue is an infectious, seasonal and potentially epidemic disease caused by different serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV 1-4), which are transmitted to the human by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. It is a disease with a high incidence of cases world-wide, as it affects approximately 400 million people per year. It is an important problem because the highest incidence is during the productive age (between 25 and 44 years). The diagnosis is mainly clinical, although laboratory tests can be useful, especially if specific antibodies like the IgG and IgM are looked for. The viral isolation, the detection of the viral RNA or antigen detection (like the NS1) are other tests that help for diagnosis. The classic clinical dengue syndrome presents with sudden temperature rising and might present with asthenia, headache, myalgias, arthralgias, nausea, vomit, diarrhea and rash. The common phases after the incubation period are the febrile, critical and recovery. The treatment is symptomatic: antipyretics, and hydration are the main bases. Although there is no antiviral treatment for this infection, there is a lot of research for antiviral treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide current information about this disease, as well as the possible future therapeutic alternatives being currently researched.

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