Poster Open Access

Modelling Solar Ca II H&K Emission Variations

Sowmya, Krishnamurthy; Shapiro, Alexander I.; Witzke, Veronika; Nèmec, Nina-E.; Chatzistergos, Theodosis; Yeo, Kok Leng; Krivova, Natalie A.; Solanki, Sami K.


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;The emission in the near ultraviolet Ca II H&amp;amp;K lines, often quantified via the S-index, has been serving as a prime proxy of solar and stellar magnetic activity. Despite the broad usage of the S-index, the link between the coverage of a stellar disk by magnetic features and Ca II&amp;nbsp;H&amp;amp;K emission is not fully understood. In order to fill this gap we developed a physics-based model to calculate the solar S-index. To this end, we made use of the distributions of the solar magnetic features derived from the simulations of magnetic flux emergence and surface transport, together with the Ca II&amp;nbsp;H&amp;amp;K spectra synthesized using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer code.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;We show that the value of the solar S-index is influenced by the inclination angle between the solar rotation axis and the observer&amp;rsquo;s line-of-sight, i.e. the solar S-index values obtained by an out-of-ecliptic observer are different from those obtained by an ecliptic-bound observer. This is important for comparing the magnetic activity of the Sun to other stars. We computed time series of the S-index as they would be observed at various inclinations dating back to 1700. We find that depending on the inclination and period of observations, the activity cycle in solar S-index can appear weaker or stronger than in stars with a solar-like level of magnetic activity. We show that there is nothing unusual about the solar chromospheric emission variations in the context of stars with near-solar magnetic activity.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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