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Dataset for: "How over is it?" Understanding the Incel Community on YouTube

Kostantinos Papadamou; Savvas Zannettou; Jeremy Blackburn; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Gianluca Stringhini; Michael Sirivianos


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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.4557039</identifier>
  <creators>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Kostantinos Papadamou</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Cyprus University of Technology</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Savvas Zannettou</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Max Planck Institute</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Jeremy Blackburn</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Binghamton University</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Emiliano De Cristofaro</creatorName>
      <affiliation>University College London</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Gianluca Stringhini</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Boston University</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Michael Sirivianos</creatorName>
      <affiliation>Cyprus University of Technology</affiliation>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>Dataset for: "How over is it?" Understanding the Incel Community on YouTube</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2021</publicationYear>
  <subjects>
    <subject>YouTube</subject>
    <subject>YouTube Videos</subject>
    <subject>YouTube's Recommendation Algorithm</subject>
    <subject>Involuntary Celibates</subject>
    <subject>Incels</subject>
    <subject>Incel-related Videos</subject>
    <subject>Dataset</subject>
  </subjects>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2021-03-22</date>
  </dates>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Dataset"/>
  <alternateIdentifiers>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/4557039</alternateIdentifier>
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  <relatedIdentifiers>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsSupplementTo" resourceTypeGeneral="ConferencePaper">10.5281/zenodo.4769412</relatedIdentifier>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.4557038</relatedIdentifier>
  </relatedIdentifiers>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess">Restricted Access</rights>
  </rightsList>
  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Dataset for the paper: &amp;quot;How over is it?&amp;quot; Understanding the Incel Community on YouTube&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract:&lt;/strong&gt;&amp;nbsp;YouTube is by far the largest host of user-generated video content worldwide.&amp;nbsp;Alas, the platform also hosts inappropriate, toxic, and hateful content.&amp;nbsp;One community that has often been linked to sharing and publishing hateful and misogynistic content is the so-called Involuntary Celibates (Incels), a loosely defined movement ostensibly focusing on men&amp;#39;s issues.&amp;nbsp;In this paper, we set out to analyze the Incel community on YouTube by focusing on this community&amp;#39;s evolution over the last decade and understanding whether YouTube&amp;#39;s recommendation algorithm steers users towards Incel-related videos.&amp;nbsp;We collect videos shared on Incel communities within Reddit and perform a data-driven characterization of the content posted on YouTube.&amp;nbsp;Among other things, we find that the Incel community on YouTube is getting traction and that during the last decade, the number of Incel-related videos and comments rose substantially.&amp;nbsp;We also find that users have a 6.3% chance of being suggested an Incel-related video by YouTube&amp;#39;s recommendation algorithm within five hops when starting from a non-Incel-related video.&amp;nbsp;Overall, our findings paint an alarming picture of online radicalization: not only Incel activity is increasing over time, but platforms may also play an active role in steering users towards such extreme content.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Dataset Files&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;The dataset consists of nine&amp;nbsp;files, which include the metadata, comments, and captions of all the videos collected and analyzed in this paper (Incel-derived set, Control Set, Incel-derived Recommendation Graph, and Control Recommendation Graph), as well as the Incel Terms lexicon that we use in our video annotation methodology.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;1. Video Metadata&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;ul&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;incel_derived_groundtruth_videos.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt;&amp;nbsp;Contains the Incel-derived labeled ground-truth videos shared in Incel-related subreddits on Reddit. It includes 6,452 videos (290 Incel-related and 6,162 &amp;quot;Other&amp;quot;) annotated following the video annotation methodology described in the paper.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;control_groundtruth_videos.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt; Contains the randomly selected YouTube videos shared in various subreddits on Reddit. It includes 5,793 videos (66 Incel-related and 5,727 &amp;quot;Other&amp;quot;)&amp;nbsp;annotated following the video annotation methodology described in the paper.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;incel_derived_recommendation_graph_videos.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt; Contains the 37.7K YouTube videos used to construct the Incel-derived recommendation graph. We have 1,074 Incel-related videos and 36,673 &amp;quot;Other&amp;quot; videos annotated&amp;nbsp;following the video annotation methodology described in the paper.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;control_recommendation _graph_videos.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt;&amp;nbsp;Contains the 29.3K YouTube videos used to construct the Control recommendation graph. We have 428 Incel-related videos and 28,866 &amp;quot;Other&amp;quot; videos annotated following the video annotation methodology described in the paper.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;- Video Metadata Description:&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;ul&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;em&gt;&amp;quot;annotation_label&amp;quot;&lt;/em&gt;: The annotation label assigned to the video by&amp;nbsp;our video annotation methodology.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;em&gt;&amp;quot;isSeed&amp;quot;&lt;/em&gt;: 0 if the video is a seed video in the recommendation graph, 1 if it is a recommended video of a seed video.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;em&gt;&amp;quot;relatedVideos&amp;quot;&lt;/em&gt;: The recommended videos of the given video as returned by the YouTube Data API.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;2. Video Comments:&amp;nbsp;&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;ul&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;incel_derived_videos_comments.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt;&amp;nbsp;Includes the unique identifiers of the comments of the Incel-derived ground-truth&amp;nbsp;and the Incel-derived Recommendation Graph videos.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;control_videos_comments.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt;&amp;nbsp;Includes the unique identifiers of the comments of the Control ground-truth and the Control Recommendation Graph videos.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;3. Video Transcripts:&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;ul&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;incel_derived_videos_transcripts.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt; Includes the captions of&amp;nbsp;the Incel-derived ground-truth&amp;nbsp;and the Incel-derived Recommendation Graph videos.&lt;/li&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;control_videos_transcripts.json&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt; Includes the captions of the Control ground-truth and the Control Recommendation Graph videos.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;4. Incel-related Terms Dictionary:&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;ul&gt;
	&lt;li&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;quot;incel_related_terms_dictionary&amp;quot;:&lt;/strong&gt; It includes all the 200 terms of the Incel-related terms lexicon mentioned in the paper and used in our video annotation methodology.&lt;/li&gt;
&lt;/ul&gt;

&lt;p&gt;If you use this dataset in any publication, of any form and kind, please cite using this data:&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;pre&gt;&lt;code&gt;@article{papadamou2020understanding,
  title={"How over is it?" Understanding the incel community on youtube},
  author={Papadamou, Kostantinos and Zannettou, Savvas and Blackburn, Jeremy and De Cristofaro, Emiliano and Stringhini, Gianluca and Sirivianos, Michael},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.08293},
  year={2020}
}&lt;/code&gt;&lt;/pre&gt;</description>
    <description descriptionType="Other">Acknowledgments: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation program under the Marie Sk\l{}dowska-Curie ENCASE project (GA No. 691025) and the CONCORDIA project (GA No. 830927), the US National Science Foundation (grants: 1942610, 2114407, 2114411, and 2046590), and the UK's National Research Centre on Privacy, Harm Reduction, and Adversarial Influence Online (UKRI grant: EP/V011189/1). This work reflects only the authors' views; the Agency and the Commission are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.</description>
  </descriptions>
  <fundingReferences>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/830927/">830927</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Cyber security cOmpeteNce fOr Research anD Innovation</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/691025/">691025</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>EnhaNcing seCurity And privacy in the Social wEb: a user centered approach for the protection of minors</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
  </fundingReferences>
</resource>
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