Journal article Open Access

The family Tornidae (Gastropoda, Rissooidea) in the Caribbean and neighboring areas

Rubio, Federico; Fernández-Garcés, Raúl; Rolán, Emilio


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;The Caribbean species included within the family Tornidae in the genera &lt;em&gt;Circulus&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Tornus&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Anticlimax&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Aorotrema&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Cyclostremiscus&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Cochliolepis&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Episcynia&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Parviturboides&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Pleuromalaxis&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Solariorbis&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Vitrinella &lt;/em&gt;and &lt;em&gt;Vitrinorbis &lt;/em&gt;are studied, based on about 2700 specimens and shells examined. There are a total of 101 species, including 4 in the genus &lt;em&gt;Circulus&lt;/em&gt;, 27 in &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma&lt;/em&gt;, 2 in &lt;em&gt;Tornus&lt;/em&gt;, 8 in &lt;em&gt;Anticlimax&lt;/em&gt;, 2 in &lt;em&gt;Aorotrema&lt;/em&gt;, 14 in &lt;em&gt;Cyclostremiscus&lt;/em&gt;, 9 in &lt;em&gt;Cochliolepis&lt;/em&gt;, 1 in &lt;em&gt;Episcynia&lt;/em&gt;, 1 in &lt;em&gt;Parviturboides&lt;/em&gt;, 1 in &lt;em&gt;Pleuromalaxis&lt;/em&gt;, 16 in &lt;em&gt;Solariorbis&lt;/em&gt;, 15 in &lt;em&gt;Vitrinella&lt;/em&gt;, and 1 in &lt;em&gt;Vitrinorbis&lt;/em&gt;. Of all these species 23 are new and are described here: 8 in &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma&lt;/em&gt;, 1 in &lt;em&gt;Anticlimax&lt;/em&gt;, 3 in &lt;em&gt;Cyclostremiscus&lt;/em&gt;, 3 in &lt;em&gt;Cochliolepis&lt;/em&gt;, 4 in &lt;em&gt;Solariorbis&lt;/em&gt;, and 4 in &lt;em&gt;Vitrinella&lt;/em&gt;. The assignation of these species to these genera and their relationships are discussed. Furthermore, some information is given on 40 species more which have been related at times to the family studied. A new name is proposed for &lt;em&gt;&amp;ldquo;Cyclostrema&amp;rdquo; thomasi&lt;/em&gt; Pilsbry, 1945, which is preoccupied.&lt;br&gt;
&lt;em&gt;Teinostoma nessaeum&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma obtectum&lt;/em&gt; are treated as valid species, not synonyms of &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma biscaynense&lt;/em&gt;; &lt;em&gt;Cyclostremiscus trilix&lt;/em&gt; is not a synonym of &lt;em&gt;Cyclostremiscus pentagonus&lt;/em&gt;; &lt;em&gt;Cyclostrema thomasi&lt;/em&gt; is not a synonym of &lt;em&gt;Vitrinella filifera&lt;/em&gt;. Conversely, &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma clavium&lt;/em&gt; is herein considered a synonym of &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma semistriatum&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
Lectotypes are here designated for &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma reclusum&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma solidum&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Parviturboides interruptus&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Solariorbis petitii&lt;/em&gt;,&lt;em&gt; Episcynia inornata&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;Cochliolepis parasitica&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
Neotypes are designated for &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma megastoma&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Teinostoma semistriatum&lt;/em&gt;, and &lt;em&gt;Circulus orbignyi&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;br&gt;
Some types from the Dall and K.J. Bush collections, all in USNM, are photographed for the first time using SEM.&lt;br&gt;
From the examination of Dall&amp;rsquo;s (1927) types, we concluded that a number of species described therein are not tornids but skeneids included in the genera &lt;em&gt;Cirsonella&lt;/em&gt;, &lt;em&gt;Mikro &lt;/em&gt;and &lt;em&gt;Xyloskenea&lt;/em&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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