Journal article Open Access

Rapid Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk Factors: Epidemiological, Immunological and Virological Aspects

Sümbül, Hilmi Erdem; Şahiner, Fatih


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;SARS-CoV-2, the third coronavirus associated with severe respiratory infections in humans, spreads more easily and quickly in the community, with a higher infectiousness rate compared to the other two betacoronavirus species (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV).&amp;nbsp;The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in which the number of cases worldwide has exceeded 30 million, has been the biggest global epidemic of the last century with serious concerns and socio-economic impacts.&amp;nbsp;Educational activities, meetings, worship, tourism,&amp;nbsp;trade&amp;nbsp;and sports organizations came to a halt in many countries during the pandemic period and national and international travel restrictions were applied. Also, in most countries, to protect the population at risk and to slow/stop the spread of infection; nationwide or regional curfew restrictions have been imposed according to risk analysis, and public health measures such as the obligation to wear a mask and quarantine precautions have been taken.&amp;nbsp;The starting time of implementation of these measures, duration and controlling of the restrictions has been one of the important parameters determining the degree of countries affected by the epidemic.&amp;nbsp;Studies on transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infections provide new information on epidemiological,&amp;nbsp;immunological&amp;nbsp;and virological parameters that are effective in the community spread of the virus. Epidemiological parameters generally include age, gender, presence of concomitant diseases/conditions, sociocultural habits, the role of asymptomatic persons and reservoir animals, seasonality of infections. Immunological factors include conditions associated with the immune response, such as susceptible individuals with immunodeficiency, the role of people who shed the virus for a long time, the level and duration of protective immunity in recovered people, effectiveness of active and passive immunization, the importance of viral load in the transmission and clinical course.&amp;nbsp;Among the virological parameters that can affect the spread of the infection include the resistance of the virus to environmental conditions and disinfectants, receptor affinity and the degree of adaptation to humans, possible mutations associated with immune escape and virulence.&amp;nbsp;In this article, by mentioning the situations that may pose a risk for the transmission, social spread and clinical course of infections, the main protective measures under the related topics are highlighted.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;&amp;Ouml;zet&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;İnsanlarda ciddi solunum yolu enfeksiyonları ile ilişkili &amp;uuml;&amp;ccedil;&amp;uuml;nc&amp;uuml; koronavirus olan SARS-CoV-2 diğer iki betakoronavirusa (SARS-CoV ve MERS-CoV) kıyasla y&amp;uuml;ksek bulaştırıcılık hızı ile toplumda daha kolay ve hızlı bir şekilde yayılmaktadır. D&amp;uuml;nya genelindeki vaka sayısının 30 milyonu ge&amp;ccedil;tiği SARS-CoV-2 pandemisi neden olduğu ciddi endişeler ve sosyo-ekonomik etkiler ile son y&amp;uuml;zyılın en b&amp;uuml;y&amp;uuml;k k&amp;uuml;resel salgını olmuştur. Pandemi s&amp;uuml;recinde bir&amp;ccedil;ok &amp;uuml;lkede eğitim faaliyetleri, toplantılar, ibadet, turizm, ticaret ve spor organizasyonları durma noktasına gelmiş ve ulusal ve uluslararası seyahat kısıtlamaları uygulanmıştır. Yine &amp;ccedil;oğu &amp;uuml;lkede risk altındaki pop&amp;uuml;lasyonu korumak ve enfeksiyonun yayılımını yavaşlatmak / durdurmak i&amp;ccedil;in &amp;uuml;lke genelini kapsayan ya da risk analizlerine g&amp;ouml;re b&amp;ouml;lgesel sokağa &amp;ccedil;ıkma kısıtlamalarına gidilmiş, maske takma zorunluluğu ve karantina &amp;ouml;nlemleri gibi halk sağlığı tedbirleri alınmıştır. Bu tedbirlerin uygulamaya başlama zamanı, uygulama s&amp;uuml;resi ve denetimi &amp;uuml;lkelerin salgından etkilenme derecelerini belirleyen &amp;ouml;nemli parametrelerden biri olmuştur. SARS-CoV-2 enfeksiyonlarının bulaşma yollarına ilişkin &amp;ccedil;alışmalar vir&amp;uuml;s&amp;uuml;n toplumsal yayılımında etkili olan&amp;nbsp;epidemiyolojik, imm&amp;uuml;nolojik ve virolojik parametrelere dair yeni bilgiler sunmaktadır. Epidemiyolojik parametreler genel olarak yaş, cinsiyet, eşlik eden hastalıkların varlığı, sosyok&amp;uuml;lt&amp;uuml;rel alışkanlıklar, asemptomatik kişilerin ve rezervuar hayvanların rol&amp;uuml;, enfeksiyonların&amp;nbsp;mevsimselliği gibi &amp;ouml;zellikleri i&amp;ccedil;erir.&amp;nbsp;İmm&amp;uuml;nolojik fakt&amp;ouml;rler arasında bağışıklık yetmezliği olan duyarlı bireyler, uzun s&amp;uuml;reli vir&amp;uuml;s sa&amp;ccedil;an kişilerin&amp;nbsp;bulaştaki&amp;nbsp;rol&amp;uuml;, iyileşen kişilerde koruyucu bağışıklığın d&amp;uuml;zeyi ve devam s&amp;uuml;resi, aktif ve pasif imm&amp;uuml;nizasyon uygulamalarının etkinliği, viral y&amp;uuml;k&amp;uuml;n bulaş ve klinik seyirdeki &amp;ouml;nemi gibi imm&amp;uuml;n yanıt ile ilişkili durumlar yer alır. Enfeksiyonun yayılmasını etkileyebilecek virolojik parametreler arasında ise vir&amp;uuml;s&amp;uuml;n &amp;ccedil;evresel koşullara ve dezenfektanlara direnci, resept&amp;ouml;r afinitesi ve insanlara adaptasyon derecesi, imm&amp;uuml;n ka&amp;ccedil;ış ve vir&amp;uuml;lans ile ilişkili olası mutasyonlar gibi &amp;ouml;zellikler bulunur. Bu makalede enfeksiyonların bulaşı, toplumsal yayılımı ve klinik seyri i&amp;ccedil;in risk oluşturabilen durumlara değinilerek ilgili konu başlıkları altında temel koruyucu &amp;ouml;nlemlere dikkat &amp;ccedil;ekilmiştir.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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