Journal article Open Access

Rapid Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk Factors: Epidemiological, Immunological and Virological Aspects

Sümbül, Hilmi Erdem; Şahiner, Fatih


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{
  "note": "SARS-CoV-2 Enfeksiyonunun H\u0131zl\u0131 Yay\u0131l\u0131m\u0131 ve Risk Fakt\u00f6rleri: Epidemiyolojik, \u0130mm\u00fcnolojik ve Virolojik Bak\u0131\u015f", 
  "DOI": "10.46683/jmvi.2020.11", 
  "container_title": "Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "Rapid Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk Factors: Epidemiological, Immunological and Virological Aspects", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2020, 
        9, 
        22
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p><strong>Abstract</strong></p>\n\n<p>SARS-CoV-2, the third coronavirus associated with severe respiratory infections in humans, spreads more easily and quickly in the community, with a higher infectiousness rate compared to the other two betacoronavirus species (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV).&nbsp;The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in which the number of cases worldwide has exceeded 30 million, has been the biggest global epidemic of the last century with serious concerns and socio-economic impacts.&nbsp;Educational activities, meetings, worship, tourism,&nbsp;trade&nbsp;and sports organizations came to a halt in many countries during the pandemic period and national and international travel restrictions were applied. Also, in most countries, to protect the population at risk and to slow/stop the spread of infection; nationwide or regional curfew restrictions have been imposed according to risk analysis, and public health measures such as the obligation to wear a mask and quarantine precautions have been taken.&nbsp;The starting time of implementation of these measures, duration and controlling of the restrictions has been one of the important parameters determining the degree of countries affected by the epidemic.&nbsp;Studies on transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infections provide new information on epidemiological,&nbsp;immunological&nbsp;and virological parameters that are effective in the community spread of the virus. Epidemiological parameters generally include age, gender, presence of concomitant diseases/conditions, sociocultural habits, the role of asymptomatic persons and reservoir animals, seasonality of infections. Immunological factors include conditions associated with the immune response, such as susceptible individuals with immunodeficiency, the role of people who shed the virus for a long time, the level and duration of protective immunity in recovered people, effectiveness of active and passive immunization, the importance of viral load in the transmission and clinical course.&nbsp;Among the virological parameters that can affect the spread of the infection include the resistance of the virus to environmental conditions and disinfectants, receptor affinity and the degree of adaptation to humans, possible mutations associated with immune escape and virulence.&nbsp;In this article, by mentioning the situations that may pose a risk for the transmission, social spread and clinical course of infections, the main protective measures under the related topics are highlighted.</p>\n\n<p><strong>&Ouml;zet</strong></p>\n\n<p>\u0130nsanlarda ciddi solunum yolu enfeksiyonlar\u0131 ile ili\u015fkili &uuml;&ccedil;&uuml;nc&uuml; koronavirus olan SARS-CoV-2 di\u011fer iki betakoronavirusa (SARS-CoV ve MERS-CoV) k\u0131yasla y&uuml;ksek bula\u015ft\u0131r\u0131c\u0131l\u0131k h\u0131z\u0131 ile toplumda daha kolay ve h\u0131zl\u0131 bir \u015fekilde yay\u0131lmaktad\u0131r. D&uuml;nya genelindeki vaka say\u0131s\u0131n\u0131n 30 milyonu ge&ccedil;ti\u011fi SARS-CoV-2 pandemisi neden oldu\u011fu ciddi endi\u015feler ve sosyo-ekonomik etkiler ile son y&uuml;zy\u0131l\u0131n en b&uuml;y&uuml;k k&uuml;resel salg\u0131n\u0131 olmu\u015ftur. Pandemi s&uuml;recinde bir&ccedil;ok &uuml;lkede e\u011fitim faaliyetleri, toplant\u0131lar, ibadet, turizm, ticaret ve spor organizasyonlar\u0131 durma noktas\u0131na gelmi\u015f ve ulusal ve uluslararas\u0131 seyahat k\u0131s\u0131tlamalar\u0131 uygulanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Yine &ccedil;o\u011fu &uuml;lkede risk alt\u0131ndaki pop&uuml;lasyonu korumak ve enfeksiyonun yay\u0131l\u0131m\u0131n\u0131 yava\u015flatmak / durdurmak i&ccedil;in &uuml;lke genelini kapsayan ya da risk analizlerine g&ouml;re b&ouml;lgesel soka\u011fa &ccedil;\u0131kma k\u0131s\u0131tlamalar\u0131na gidilmi\u015f, maske takma zorunlulu\u011fu ve karantina &ouml;nlemleri gibi halk sa\u011fl\u0131\u011f\u0131 tedbirleri al\u0131nm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Bu tedbirlerin uygulamaya ba\u015flama zaman\u0131, uygulama s&uuml;resi ve denetimi &uuml;lkelerin salg\u0131ndan etkilenme derecelerini belirleyen &ouml;nemli parametrelerden biri olmu\u015ftur. SARS-CoV-2 enfeksiyonlar\u0131n\u0131n bula\u015fma yollar\u0131na ili\u015fkin &ccedil;al\u0131\u015fmalar vir&uuml;s&uuml;n toplumsal yay\u0131l\u0131m\u0131nda etkili olan&nbsp;epidemiyolojik, imm&uuml;nolojik ve virolojik parametrelere dair yeni bilgiler sunmaktad\u0131r. Epidemiyolojik parametreler genel olarak ya\u015f, cinsiyet, e\u015flik eden hastal\u0131klar\u0131n varl\u0131\u011f\u0131, sosyok&uuml;lt&uuml;rel al\u0131\u015fkanl\u0131klar, asemptomatik ki\u015filerin ve rezervuar hayvanlar\u0131n rol&uuml;, enfeksiyonlar\u0131n&nbsp;mevsimselli\u011fi gibi &ouml;zellikleri i&ccedil;erir.&nbsp;\u0130mm&uuml;nolojik fakt&ouml;rler aras\u0131nda ba\u011f\u0131\u015f\u0131kl\u0131k yetmezli\u011fi olan duyarl\u0131 bireyler, uzun s&uuml;reli vir&uuml;s sa&ccedil;an ki\u015filerin&nbsp;bula\u015ftaki&nbsp;rol&uuml;, iyile\u015fen ki\u015filerde koruyucu ba\u011f\u0131\u015f\u0131kl\u0131\u011f\u0131n d&uuml;zeyi ve devam s&uuml;resi, aktif ve pasif imm&uuml;nizasyon uygulamalar\u0131n\u0131n etkinli\u011fi, viral y&uuml;k&uuml;n bula\u015f ve klinik seyirdeki &ouml;nemi gibi imm&uuml;n yan\u0131t ile ili\u015fkili durumlar yer al\u0131r. Enfeksiyonun yay\u0131lmas\u0131n\u0131 etkileyebilecek virolojik parametreler aras\u0131nda ise vir&uuml;s&uuml;n &ccedil;evresel ko\u015fullara ve dezenfektanlara direnci, resept&ouml;r afinitesi ve insanlara adaptasyon derecesi, imm&uuml;n ka&ccedil;\u0131\u015f ve vir&uuml;lans ile ili\u015fkili olas\u0131 mutasyonlar gibi &ouml;zellikler bulunur. Bu makalede enfeksiyonlar\u0131n bula\u015f\u0131, toplumsal yay\u0131l\u0131m\u0131 ve klinik seyri i&ccedil;in risk olu\u015fturabilen durumlara de\u011finilerek ilgili konu ba\u015fl\u0131klar\u0131 alt\u0131nda temel koruyucu &ouml;nlemlere dikkat &ccedil;ekilmi\u015ftir.</p>", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "S\u00fcmb\u00fcl, Hilmi Erdem"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "\u015eahiner, Fatih"
    }
  ], 
  "page": "36-50", 
  "volume": "1", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "issue": "2", 
  "id": "4548338"
}
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