Journal article Open Access
SARS-CoV-2, the third coronavirus associated with severe respiratory infections in humans, spreads more easily and quickly in the community, with a higher infectiousness rate compared to the other two betacoronavirus species (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in which the number of cases worldwide has exceeded 30 million, has been the biggest global epidemic of the last century with serious concerns and socio-economic impacts. Educational activities, meetings, worship, tourism, trade and sports organizations came to a halt in many countries during the pandemic period and national and international travel restrictions were applied. Also, in most countries, to protect the population at risk and to slow/stop the spread of infection; nationwide or regional curfew restrictions have been imposed according to risk analysis, and public health measures such as the obligation to wear a mask and quarantine precautions have been taken. The starting time of implementation of these measures, duration and controlling of the restrictions has been one of the important parameters determining the degree of countries affected by the epidemic. Studies on transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infections provide new information on epidemiological, immunological and virological parameters that are effective in the community spread of the virus. Epidemiological parameters generally include age, gender, presence of concomitant diseases/conditions, sociocultural habits, the role of asymptomatic persons and reservoir animals, seasonality of infections. Immunological factors include conditions associated with the immune response, such as susceptible individuals with immunodeficiency, the role of people who shed the virus for a long time, the level and duration of protective immunity in recovered people, effectiveness of active and passive immunization, the importance of viral load in the transmission and clinical course. Among the virological parameters that can affect the spread of the infection include the resistance of the virus to environmental conditions and disinfectants, receptor affinity and the degree of adaptation to humans, possible mutations associated with immune escape and virulence. In this article, by mentioning the situations that may pose a risk for the transmission, social spread and clinical course of infections, the main protective measures under the related topics are highlighted.
İnsanlarda ciddi solunum yolu enfeksiyonları ile ilişkili üçüncü koronavirus olan SARS-CoV-2 diğer iki betakoronavirusa (SARS-CoV ve MERS-CoV) kıyasla yüksek bulaştırıcılık hızı ile toplumda daha kolay ve hızlı bir şekilde yayılmaktadır. Dünya genelindeki vaka sayısının 30 milyonu geçtiği SARS-CoV-2 pandemisi neden olduğu ciddi endişeler ve sosyo-ekonomik etkiler ile son yüzyılın en büyük küresel salgını olmuştur. Pandemi sürecinde birçok ülkede eğitim faaliyetleri, toplantılar, ibadet, turizm, ticaret ve spor organizasyonları durma noktasına gelmiş ve ulusal ve uluslararası seyahat kısıtlamaları uygulanmıştır. Yine çoğu ülkede risk altındaki popülasyonu korumak ve enfeksiyonun yayılımını yavaşlatmak / durdurmak için ülke genelini kapsayan ya da risk analizlerine göre bölgesel sokağa çıkma kısıtlamalarına gidilmiş, maske takma zorunluluğu ve karantina önlemleri gibi halk sağlığı tedbirleri alınmıştır. Bu tedbirlerin uygulamaya başlama zamanı, uygulama süresi ve denetimi ülkelerin salgından etkilenme derecelerini belirleyen önemli parametrelerden biri olmuştur. SARS-CoV-2 enfeksiyonlarının bulaşma yollarına ilişkin çalışmalar virüsün toplumsal yayılımında etkili olan epidemiyolojik, immünolojik ve virolojik parametrelere dair yeni bilgiler sunmaktadır. Epidemiyolojik parametreler genel olarak yaş, cinsiyet, eşlik eden hastalıkların varlığı, sosyokültürel alışkanlıklar, asemptomatik kişilerin ve rezervuar hayvanların rolü, enfeksiyonların mevsimselliği gibi özellikleri içerir. İmmünolojik faktörler arasında bağışıklık yetmezliği olan duyarlı bireyler, uzun süreli virüs saçan kişilerin bulaştaki rolü, iyileşen kişilerde koruyucu bağışıklığın düzeyi ve devam süresi, aktif ve pasif immünizasyon uygulamalarının etkinliği, viral yükün bulaş ve klinik seyirdeki önemi gibi immün yanıt ile ilişkili durumlar yer alır. Enfeksiyonun yayılmasını etkileyebilecek virolojik parametreler arasında ise virüsün çevresel koşullara ve dezenfektanlara direnci, reseptör afinitesi ve insanlara adaptasyon derecesi, immün kaçış ve virülans ile ilişkili olası mutasyonlar gibi özellikler bulunur. Bu makalede enfeksiyonların bulaşı, toplumsal yayılımı ve klinik seyri için risk oluşturabilen durumlara değinilerek ilgili konu başlıkları altında temel koruyucu önlemlere dikkat çekilmiştir.
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