Journal article Open Access
Background: The perfect method for laboratory diagnosis of bladder cancer should have high sensitivity and specificity, should be easily reproducible, inexpensive, be suitable for primary diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of patients, for timely detection of recurrence. In clinical practice, for bladder cancer diagnostics has used the following markers: UBC, BTA, "ImmunoCyt", NMP22, "UroVision», and others. Each method has relative advantages and disadvantages. The study has demonstrated an influence on the test result of the histological structure and grade of the tumor, presence of hematuria, urolithiasis, chronic inflammatory malignancies, recent surgical procedures on the urinary tract. Apparently, the use of a palette of markers in connection with imaging techniques will increase the diagnostic capabilities, but it is still not clear which elements should be present in such palette.
Conclusions: At present, basic diagnostic methods for bladder cancer remain: USG, MRI, CT, and endoscopic methods. The laboratory methods that exist are not informative enough. Each marker has serious restrictions, but possibly the complex application will allow increasing the diagnostic value in the future, therefore it is necessary to develop new markers of bladder cancer or to study the results of the complex application of several known markers to increase the value of the laboratory diagnosis of primary bladder cancer and recurrent.