Journal article Open Access
Background: Recurrent strokes account for about 25% of all strokes that occur annually. Studies show varying recurrence rates, ranging from 7% – 20% at 1 year to 16% – 35% at 5 years. Establishing a clinical pattern of patients with recurrent stroke could optimize the management strategy of this pathology.
Material and methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted that included 60 patients with primary stroke (n=30) and recurrent stroke (n=30). The severity of stroke was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scale and the degree of neurological disability – using the mRS scale. Predictive factors, post-stroke infectious complications and compliance with primary and secondary prophylaxis measures were also investigated. For the statistical analysis of the data, the Student's t test was performed for two independent samples.
Results: In the primary stroke group the mean age was 63.7±2.0 years, whereas in the recurrent stroke group it was 68.8±1.42 years. Statistically significant differences between groups were recorded for age (p=0.043), dyslipidemia (p=0.020), post-stroke infectious complications (p=0.032), cerebellar deficit (p=0.029), cognitive deficit (p=0.020) and neurological disability (p=0.003). Also, 93.33% of patients with atrial fibrillation following anticoagulant treatment as a secondary prophylaxis were under coagulated.
Conclusions: Elderly patients with poor risk factors control will be prone to experience a stroke of moderate severity, which will involve a moderate-severe degree of post-stroke disability, expressed by motor, sensitivity, verbal, cerebellar and cognitive deficit, as well as post-stroke infectious complications of the respiratory and urinary tract.