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The 2007 floods in Hull. Interim report by the Independent Review Body

Coulthard, T. J.; Frostick, L; Hardcastle, H; Jones, K; Rogers, D; Scott, M


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{
  "description": "<p>Executive Summary<br>\nIn June 2007, the city of Kingston upon Hull experienced unusually high rain fall.<br>\nSubsequent flooding caused widespread disruption with damage to 7208 residential and<br>\nover 1300 businesses. Following the flooding, Hull City Council commissioned an<br>\nIndependent Review Body to examine the key factors leading to the flooding in Hull and to<br>\nmake recommendations for actions to improve flood prevention in the future. The review<br>\nbody were asked to prepare an interim report in August 2007 and a final report in<br>\nNovember 2007.<br>\nOur key findings are:<br>\n&bull; Hull flooded because the drainage system was overwhelmed.<br>\n&bull; Given the magnitude of the storm (greater than 1 in 150 years) we feel it is<br>\nvery encouraging that key pieces of important civil infrastructure did not fail.<br>\n&bull; Hull&rsquo;s trunk sewer system is modern compared to other UK historical cities.<br>\n&bull; We have significant concerns as to whether the pumping system, that was<br>\nre-evaluated for the Humbercare project (post 2000), is correctly designed to<br>\ncover a 1 in 30 year storm event.<br>\n&bull; Hull&rsquo;s low lying position increases its vulnerability. Therefore, we<br>\nrecommend that Hull should have additional levels of protection above and<br>\nbeyond a 1 in 30 year storm event.<br>\n&bull; The availability of additional pumping would increase capacity, provide<br>\nbackup and contingency should any of the existing pumps fail.<br>\n&bull; There were no contingency plans for the failure of Bransholme pumping<br>\nstation or appropriate protection from flood water.<br>\n&bull; Blocked gullies appear not to have been a major factor in causing general<br>\nflooding.<br>\n&bull; There was no list of key strategic locations and infrastructure (e.g. pumping<br>\nstations, substations etc..) agreed by the agencies<br>\n&bull; No single agency (e.g. Yorkshire Water, Environment Agency, Hull CC)<br>\naccepts responsibility for any elements outside their own terms of reference<br>\nnor have they historically allowed others to influence their own obligations.<br>\nThis is a recurring theme - one of inadequate consultation, co-operation and<br>\nunity between the agencies.<br>\n&bull; There is presently no rainfall flash flood warning system.<br>\nOur recommendations are:<br>\n&bull; For urban drainage, designs based on industry standards to protect from a 1<br>\nin 30 year storm event may be inadequate. Additional capacity should be<br>\nfactored in for climate change.<br>\n&bull; We recommend that the EA explore expanding the Floodline system to<br>\ncover all types of flood warnings (rainfall and river).<br>\n&bull; The flooding in Hull has revealed the difficulties of having multiple agencies<br>\nresponsible for different areas of the drainage system. We feel it is vital that<br>\nthe Environment Agency, Local Authority and Water Company closely cooperate<br>\non operation, investment and design.<br>\n&bull; Agencies should investigate whether flooding in West Hull could be reduced<br>\nby diverting and pumping water through existing and new watercourses.<br>\n&bull; We recommend the existing stormwater pumping capacity in Hull be<br>\nincreased.<br>\n&bull; We recommend that an independent Drainage Board for Hull is set up.<br>\n&bull; Agencies must agree a list of key strategic locations for protection in<br>\nflooding emergencies.</p>", 
  "license": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "University of Hull", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Coulthard, T. J."
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "University of Hull", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Frostick, L"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Hardcastle, H"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Jones, K"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Rogers, D"
    }, 
    {
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Scott, M"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "The 2007 floods in Hull. Interim report by the Independent Review Body", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2007-08-24", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/4454422", 
  "keywords": [
    "Hull", 
    "Flooding", 
    "2007 floods", 
    "Surface Water flooding"
  ], 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4454422", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4454422", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "The 2007 floods in Hull. Interim report by the Independent Review Body"
}
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