Conference paper Open Access
DC microgrids require sources that maintain dc microgrid voltages, with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) being a good option for this task, given their multiple control alternatives. However, BESS cycling is an issue, and thus, this paper proposes an Energy Management System (EMS) for dc microgrids that considers battery degradation. Therefore, an EMS model is proposed and discussed, demonstrating its application for a practical dc microgrid of a building in Xiamen University. The simulation results show that the proposed EMS, which accounts for BES degradation costs, is an effective tool that avoids frequent battery charging and discharging, while maintaining the required dc bus voltage.