Journal article Open Access

Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale-A Hybrid Species Between Diploid F. cymosum and F. esculentum

Cheng Cheng; Yu Fan; Yu Tang; Kaixuan Zhang; Dinesh C. Joshi; Rintu Jha; Dagmar Janovska; Vladimir Meglič; Mingli Yan; Meiliang Zhou


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Fagopyrum cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;is considered as most probable wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat. However, the evolutionary route from&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;to&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;remains to be deciphered. We hypothesized that a hybrid species exists in natural habitats between diploid&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;and&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. The aim of this research was to determine the phylogenetic position of&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;and to provide new thoughts on buckwheat evolution. Different methodologies including evaluation of morphological traits, determination of secondary metabolites, fluorescence&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;in situ&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;hybridization (FISH), comparative chloroplast genomics, and molecular markers were deployed to determine the phylogenetic relationship of&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;with&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;and&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. The ambiguity observed in morphological pattern of genetic variation in three species revealed that&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F.&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp. ancestrale is closely related to&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;and&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. Flavonoid analysis revealed that&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F.&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;is closely related to&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. Comparative chloroplast genome analysis further supported the close proximity of&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;with&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. Additionally, molecular marker analysis revealed that&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;exhibits co-dominance with the bands amplified by&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;and&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;. These finding provided supporting evidence in favor of the hypothesis that&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;ssp.&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;ancestrale&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;is a hybrid species between&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. cymosum&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;to&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;F. esculentum&lt;/em&gt;, which was probably originated by spontaneous hybridization under natural conditions.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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