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Our universe is experimenting an accelerated expansion. This is the conclusion published in 1998 and 1999 by the High-Z supernovae search team and the Supernova Cosmology project. These results have been rewarded with the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics.
Instead of answering all questions, this conclusion has pushed the standard FLRW model in front of observational challenges. Two examples illustrate this affirmation: the “problem of time” and the “cosmological constant problem”. Furthermore, the rewarded results have received a contradiction in November 2019.
At the same time, observations, and simulations (Millennium, Illustris TNG, Bolshoi …) have revealed the existence of a titanic web containing nodes and filaments. These images motivate the construction of a cosmological models containing material strings surrounding giant empty voids.
This document is built around two pillars: (i) the concept of elastic strings and (ii) the theory studying deformed cross products, and their decompositions. These tools are sufficient to recover a set of equations of state characterizing perfect fluids including the case w = -1 and variations around that crucial value.
This approach introduces a so-called Euclidean enigma and can propose a first formula for the calculation of variations of the electromagnetic waves due to deformations.