Journal article Open Access

Bioaugmentation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Sustainable Agriotes Larvae (Wireworms) Management in Maize

Jaka Razinger; Eva Praprotnik; Hans-Josef Schroers


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        <foaf:name>Jaka Razinger</foaf:name>
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            <foaf:name>Kmetijski Inštitut Slovenije</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Eva Praprotnik</foaf:name>
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            <foaf:name>Kmetijski Inštitut Slovenije</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>Hans-Josef Schroers</foaf:name>
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    <dct:title>Bioaugmentation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Sustainable Agriotes Larvae (Wireworms) Management in Maize</dct:title>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#gYear">2020</dct:issued>
    <dcat:keyword>biological control</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>biopesticide</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>plant–microbe interaction</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>plant–microbe–insect interaction</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>rhizosphere</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>sustainable agriculture</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>plant-microbe-pest interaction</dcat:keyword>
    <dcat:keyword>biocontrol</dcat:keyword>
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        <foaf:name>European Commission</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>European Commission</foaf:name>
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        <foaf:name>European Commission</foaf:name>
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    <dct:issued rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">2020-09-17</dct:issued>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;Soil microorganisms influence biotic and abiotic stress tolerance of crops. Most&lt;br&gt; interactions between plant symbiotic and non-symbiotic soil microorganisms and plants&lt;br&gt; occur in the rhizosphere and are sustained through plant exudation/rhizodeposition.&lt;br&gt; Bioaugmentation, i.e., the introduction or amplification of certain plant beneficial microbes&lt;br&gt; (e.g., entomopathogenic fungi) into the rhizosphere, could contribute to controlling insect&lt;br&gt; crop pests and replacing chemical, environmentally unfriendly insecticides. Wireworms,&lt;br&gt; the soil-burrowing larval stages of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are major pests of&lt;br&gt; crops including maize, wheat and potatoes, worldwide. Alternative strategies for&lt;br&gt; controlling wireworms are needed because several chemical pesticides used&lt;br&gt; successfully in the past are being phased out because of their ecotoxicity. Therefore,&lt;br&gt; virulence to Agriotes lineatus L. wireworms and plant beneficial traits of&lt;br&gt; entomopathogenic fungi were investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Tested&lt;br&gt; taxa included environmentally retrieved Metarhizium brunneum Petch. (two strains), M.&lt;br&gt; robertsii Bisch., Rehner &amp;amp; Humber (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Beauveria&lt;br&gt; brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch. and commercially formulated B. bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.&lt;br&gt; (Cordycipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 var. kurstaki. In-house reared&lt;br&gt; larvae were dipped in conidial suspension, and maize and wheat seeds were coated with&lt;br&gt; fungal conidia. Metarhizium brunneum strains 1154 and 1868 significantly increased&lt;br&gt; wireworm mortality. Fungi were significantly more often re-isolated from maize than wheat&lt;br&gt; rhizoplanes in laboratory assays. The strains tested were rarely isolated as endophytes.&lt;br&gt; Metarhizium brunneum strain 1154 stimulated wheat growth, while M. robertsii 1880&lt;br&gt; stimulated maize growth, whereas M. brunneum 1868 and others did not affect root or&lt;br&gt; shoot length or plant biomass significantly in laboratory settings. Metarhizium brunneum&lt;br&gt; strain 1868, re-isolated most often from maize rhizoplane, caused the highest wireworm&lt;br&gt; mortality. It was further evaluated whether M. brunneum 1868 can protect maize varieties&lt;br&gt; FeroXXY, LG 34.90 and Chapalu from wireworm damage and promote plant growth at&lt;br&gt; field conditions. Plants of all three varieties stemming from seeds treated with conidia of M.&lt;br&gt; brunneum 1868 showed significantly less wireworm damage 3 to 4 weeks after sowing (5-to 6-leaf stage) resulting in a significantly higher initial maize stand. However, only in the&lt;br&gt; variety LG 34.90 a significant increase of the maize stand was observed at harvest time.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
    <dct:description>The research was financed partly by the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) (Agrobiodiversity program group, grant number P4-0072 and a grant to EP, 1000-18-0401), the Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Food Safety, Veterinary Sector and Plant Protection (UVHVVR), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food (MKGP), the EU FP7 Project CropSustaIn (grant FP7- REGPOT-CT2012-316205), and H2020 projects EXCALIBUR (grant 817946) and ECOBREED (grant 771367).</dct:description>
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