Journal article Open Access

Bioaugmentation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Sustainable Agriotes Larvae (Wireworms) Management in Maize

Jaka Razinger; Eva Praprotnik; Hans-Josef Schroers


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{
  "DOI": "10.3389/fpls.2020.535005", 
  "language": "eng", 
  "title": "Bioaugmentation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Sustainable Agriotes Larvae (Wireworms) Management in Maize", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
      [
        2020, 
        9, 
        17
      ]
    ]
  }, 
  "abstract": "<p>Soil microorganisms influence biotic and abiotic stress tolerance of crops. Most<br>\ninteractions between plant symbiotic and non-symbiotic soil microorganisms and plants<br>\noccur in the rhizosphere and are sustained through plant exudation/rhizodeposition.<br>\nBioaugmentation, i.e., the introduction or amplification of certain plant beneficial microbes<br>\n(e.g., entomopathogenic fungi) into the rhizosphere, could contribute to controlling insect<br>\ncrop pests and replacing chemical, environmentally unfriendly insecticides. Wireworms,<br>\nthe soil-burrowing larval stages of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are major pests of<br>\ncrops including maize, wheat and potatoes, worldwide. Alternative strategies for<br>\ncontrolling wireworms are needed because several chemical pesticides used<br>\nsuccessfully in the past are being phased out because of their ecotoxicity. Therefore,<br>\nvirulence to Agriotes lineatus L. wireworms and plant beneficial traits of<br>\nentomopathogenic fungi were investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Tested<br>\ntaxa included environmentally retrieved Metarhizium brunneum Petch. (two strains), M.<br>\nrobertsii Bisch., Rehner &amp; Humber (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Beauveria<br>\nbrongniartii (Sacc.) Petch. and commercially formulated B. bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.<br>\n(Cordycipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 var. kurstaki. In-house reared<br>\nlarvae were dipped in conidial suspension, and maize and wheat seeds were coated with<br>\nfungal conidia. Metarhizium brunneum strains 1154 and 1868 significantly increased<br>\nwireworm mortality. Fungi were significantly more often re-isolated from maize than wheat<br>\nrhizoplanes in laboratory assays. The strains tested were rarely isolated as endophytes.<br>\nMetarhizium brunneum strain 1154 stimulated wheat growth, while M. robertsii 1880<br>\nstimulated maize growth, whereas M. brunneum 1868 and others did not affect root or<br>\nshoot length or plant biomass significantly in laboratory settings. Metarhizium brunneum<br>\nstrain 1868, re-isolated most often from maize rhizoplane, caused the highest wireworm<br>\nmortality. It was further evaluated whether M. brunneum 1868 can protect maize varieties<br>\nFeroXXY, LG 34.90 and Chapalu from wireworm damage and promote plant growth at<br>\nfield conditions. Plants of all three varieties stemming from seeds treated with conidia of M.<br>\nbrunneum 1868 showed significantly less wireworm damage 3 to 4 weeks after sowing (5-to 6-leaf stage) resulting in a significantly higher initial maize stand. However, only in the<br>\nvariety LG 34.90 a significant increase of the maize stand was observed at harvest time.</p>", 
  "author": [
    {
      "family": "Jaka Razinger"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Eva Praprotnik"
    }, 
    {
      "family": "Hans-Josef Schroers"
    }
  ], 
  "note": "The research was financed partly by the Slovenian Research\nAgency (ARRS) (Agrobiodiversity program group, grant number\nP4-0072 and a grant to EP, 1000-18-0401), the Administration of\nthe Republic of Slovenia for Food Safety, Veterinary Sector and\nPlant Protection (UVHVVR), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry\nand Food (MKGP), the EU FP7 Project CropSustaIn (grant FP7-\nREGPOT-CT2012-316205), and H2020 projects EXCALIBUR\n(grant 817946) and ECOBREED (grant 771367).", 
  "type": "article-journal", 
  "id": "4265994"
}
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