Conference paper Open Access

The International Criminal Court: The Failure of Justice

Marsili, Marco


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    <subfield code="a">This study was supported by the European Social Fund (FSE) and by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, under research grant No. SFRH/BD/136170/2018. Abstract presented at the Unequal World Conference on Human Development in the context of Current Global Challenges, held virtually in New York on 28-29 September 2020, organized by the Unequal World Research Center in partnership with the Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS), ConScienS, IRLA and IPSEC</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;The lines between conventional and unconventional conflicts become blurred. Alongside non-international and international conflicts, a third category of armed conflict is emerging: hybrid, asymmetric, and transnational conflicts which involve state and non-state actors&amp;nbsp;whose legal status and classification is disputed.[1]&amp;nbsp;While it&amp;rsquo;s a blend of traditional and irregular tactics, hybrid warfare makes use of a wide range of tools: military and civilian;&amp;nbsp;conventional and unconventional.&amp;nbsp;Hybrid warfare was linked almost exclusively with&amp;nbsp;non-state actors.&amp;nbsp;Afterwards the concept of hybrid warfare developed in a way that is now commonly accepted to describe the interplay between conventional and unconventional means used also by governments and regular armies.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;For such emerging conflicts/warfare there is no legal definition, therefore leaving room for interpretation&amp;nbsp;and applicable law.&amp;nbsp;International law (IL) and&amp;nbsp;international humanitarian law (IHL)&amp;nbsp;&amp;ndash; in particular the law of war (Geneva and Hague law) &amp;ndash; apply in case of armed conflict.&amp;nbsp;The law of war, a branch of public international law, sets the acceptable justifications to engage in war (&lt;em&gt;jus ad bellum&lt;/em&gt;) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (&lt;em&gt;jus in bello&lt;/em&gt;).&amp;nbsp;The law of war regulates&lt;em&gt;&amp;nbsp;i&lt;/em&gt;&lt;em&gt;nter alia&lt;/em&gt;: declaration of war; acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; military necessity, along with distinction and proportionality; and the prohibition of certain weapons that may cause unnecessary suffering.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;[1]&amp;nbsp;For a definition of the term hybrid conflict, see: Gray, C.S. (2005).&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare&lt;/em&gt;,&amp;nbsp;London: Weidenfeld &amp;amp; Nicolson.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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