Conference paper Open Access

The International Criminal Court: The Failure of Justice

Marsili, Marco


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    "description": "<p>The lines between conventional and unconventional conflicts become blurred. Alongside non-international and international conflicts, a third category of armed conflict is emerging: hybrid, asymmetric, and transnational conflicts which involve state and non-state actors&nbsp;whose legal status and classification is disputed.[1]&nbsp;While it&rsquo;s a blend of traditional and irregular tactics, hybrid warfare makes use of a wide range of tools: military and civilian;&nbsp;conventional and unconventional.&nbsp;Hybrid warfare was linked almost exclusively with&nbsp;non-state actors.&nbsp;Afterwards the concept of hybrid warfare developed in a way that is now commonly accepted to describe the interplay between conventional and unconventional means used also by governments and regular armies.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>For such emerging conflicts/warfare there is no legal definition, therefore leaving room for interpretation&nbsp;and applicable law.&nbsp;International law (IL) and&nbsp;international humanitarian law (IHL)&nbsp;&ndash; in particular the law of war (Geneva and Hague law) &ndash; apply in case of armed conflict.&nbsp;The law of war, a branch of public international law, sets the acceptable justifications to engage in war (<em>jus ad bellum</em>) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (<em>jus in bello</em>).&nbsp;The law of war regulates<em>&nbsp;i</em><em>nter alia</em>: declaration of war; acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; military necessity, along with distinction and proportionality; and the prohibition of certain weapons that may cause unnecessary suffering.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>[1]&nbsp;For a definition of the term hybrid conflict, see: Gray, C.S. (2005).&nbsp;<em>Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare</em>,&nbsp;London: Weidenfeld &amp; Nicolson.</p>", 
    "contributors": [
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        "affiliation": "IRLA", 
        "type": "Editor", 
        "name": "Burcea, Nelu"
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        "affiliation": "Institute for Peace Studies in Eastern Christianity at Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, MA; Fitchburg State University, MA", 
        "type": "Editor", 
        "name": "Simion, Marian Gh."
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      {
        "affiliation": "School of Business and Technology of Fitchburg State University, MA", 
        "type": "Editor", 
        "name": "Burrill, Denise E."
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    "title": "The International Criminal Court: The Failure of Justice", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "notes": "This study was supported by the European Social Fund (FSE) and by the Funda\u00e7\u00e3o para a Ci\u00eancia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal, under research grant No. SFRH/BD/136170/2018. Abstract presented at the Unequal World Conference on Human Development in the context of Current Global Challenges, held virtually in New York on 28-29 September 2020, organized by the Unequal World Research Center in partnership with the Research Association for Interdisciplinary Studies (RAIS), ConScienS, IRLA and IPSEC", 
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      "isbn": "978-1-945298-29-5"
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    "keywords": [
      "International law (IL)", 
      "international humanitarian law (IHL)", 
      "Geneva Conventions", 
      "War crimes", 
      "human rights", 
      "international court of justice (ICJ)", 
      "international criminal court (ICC)", 
      "United Nations (UN)", 
      "Law of war", 
      "justice", 
      "international justice", 
      "crimes against humanity"
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    "publication_date": "2020-10-15", 
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        "affiliation": "CIEP-UCP, CEI-IUL, CINAMIL, CIDIUM", 
        "name": "Marsili, Marco"
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      "dates": "28-29 September 2020", 
      "title": "Unequal World International Conference on Human Development in the context of Current Global Challenges", 
      "acronym": "Unequal World Conference", 
      "url": "http://unequal.world", 
      "session": "Session 3, Day 1 (18 September)", 
      "place": "United Nations Plaza, New York, NY, USA", 
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