Presentation Open Access

Conditions for Passenger Aircraft Minimum Fuel Consumption, Direct Operating Costs and Environmental Impact

Caers, Brecht; Scholz, Dieter

Purpose – Find optimal flight and design parameters for three objectives: minimum fuel consumption, Direct Operating Costs (DOC), and environmental impact of a passenger jet aircraft. --- Approach – Combining multiple models (this includes aerodynamics, specific fuel consumption, DOC, and equivalent CO2 mass) into one generic model. In this combined model, each objective's importance is determined by a weighting factor. Additionally, the possibility of further optimizing this model by altering an aircraft's wing loading is analyzed. --- Findings – When optimizing for a compromise between economic and ecologic benefits, the general outcome is a reduction in cruise altitude and an unaltered cruise Mach number compared to common practice. Decreasing cruise speed would benefit the environmental impact but has a negative effect on seat-mile cost. An increase in wing loading could further optimize the general outcome. Albeit at the cost of a greater required landing distance, therefore limiting the operational opportunities of this aircraft. --- Research limitations – Most models use estimating equations based on first principles and statistical data. --- Practical implications – The optimal cruise altitude and speed for a specific objective can be approximated for any passenger jet aircraft. --- Social implications – By using a simple approach, the discussion of optimizing aircraft opens up to a level where everyone can participate. --- Value – To find a general answer on how to optimize aviation, operational and design-wise, by using a simple approach.
Files (1.6 MB)
Name Size
1.6 MB Download
All versions This version
Views 9595
Downloads 8686
Data volume 136.6 MB136.6 MB
Unique views 8383
Unique downloads 7373


Cite as