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Description of musical instruments in treatises of IX-XI centuries


 This article provides information about the musical instruments presented in the treatises of medieval Eastern scientists.  In particular, in the encyclopedic work of Abu Abdullah Al-Khorezmiy “Key to the knowledge”, more than 10 musical instruments that were in practice in the Middle Ages were described. It is necessary to admit that the “organ” was in practice in Central Asia. He listed various instruments such as “Barbat”, “Shakhrud”, “Oud”.

Musical instruments are one of the factors that determine the national-spiritual values of each nation and reveal its soul and moral world. Each nation has had its own musical instruments since time immemorial, which are created on the basis of its values and traditions in the social and cultural life. These national instruments reflect the moral and spiritual world of the nation. Perhaps, that is why the attention to musical instruments has continued for centuries and has also been promoted by people and increased their dignity.

The sharp development of social and various sciences in the creativity of the countries of Central Asia and Middle East in the IX centuries is stated in the sources. The science of music has also begun to develop. Its first steps and development process are related to the name of the unique scholars of their time such as Abu Nasr Farabiy, Abu Abdullah al-Khorezmiy, Beruniy, Abu Ali Ibn Sina. In their practical researches, we can observe that the perception of music is carried out in different sciences (directions).


Keywords: Musical instruments, lira, tanbur mizani, rabab, myazaf, mustak, flute, mizmar, surnay, organ, shalya, sanzh, barbat, shakhrud, ud,



This article has been published at , Issue: 2, Volume# 2, August 2020.
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