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Fundamental Rights, Accountability and Transparency in European Governance of Migration: The Case of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency Frontex

Karamanidou, Lena; Kasparek, Bernd

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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;This report analyses and interrogates&amp;nbsp;the accountability and transparency regime of the European Union&amp;rsquo;s border agency Frontex.&amp;nbsp;Frontex was established as a European Union agency in the field of border, migration and&amp;nbsp;asylum policies in 2004 and began operating in 2005. Over the last 15 years, the mandate of&amp;nbsp;the agency, originally tasked with coordinating the operational management of the European&amp;nbsp;Union&amp;rsquo;s external border through support to the EU&amp;rsquo;s member states, has expanded&amp;nbsp;significantly. Through a series of reforms, most notably in 2007, and 2016 and 2019, the&amp;nbsp;agency has become a pivotal actor in what is referred to as &amp;lsquo;European Integrated Border&amp;nbsp;Management&amp;rsquo;. &amp;nbsp;Since the creation of the agency and its first operations, there has been significant concern,&amp;nbsp;both from the European Parliament as well as NGOs and other civil society organisations that&amp;nbsp;the executive mandate of the agency has not been&amp;nbsp;counterbalanced by effective mechanisms&amp;nbsp;for accountability, particularly with respect to fundamental rights.&amp;nbsp;To an extent, the Frontex monitoring and accountability regime has improved since 2011&amp;nbsp;through legislative change, thus strengthening the above mechanisms. The findings of the&amp;nbsp;report however show that despite the continued expansion and strengthening of monitoring&amp;nbsp;and accountability mechanisms since 2016, these efforts have again not resulted in an&amp;nbsp;effective system for monitoring, investigating, addressing, and preventing fundamental rights&amp;nbsp;violations at Europe&amp;rsquo;s external borders.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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