Conference paper Open Access

Comparing Measures of Internet Censorship: Analyzing the Tradeoffs between Expert Analysis and Remote Measurement

Fletcher, Terry; Hayes-Birchler, Andria


MARC21 XML Export

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<record xmlns="http://www.loc.gov/MARC21/slim">
  <leader>00000nam##2200000uu#4500</leader>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Access Now (2017). Shutdown Tracker Optimization Project. https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2017/09/How-to-view-the-Access-Now-Internet-Shutdown-Tracker-2017.pdf</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Al-Saqaf, W. (2015). Internet Censorship Circumvention Tools: Escaping the Control of the Syrian Regime. Media and Communication. 4(1), 39-50.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Amnesty International (2017). Cuba's Internet paradox: How controlled and censored internet risks Cuba's achievements in education. Amnesty International. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/08/cubas-internet-paradox-how-controlled-and-censored-internet-risks-cubas-achievements-in-education/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Anthonio, F. (2020). A Shutdown taints Togo's 2020 presidential election: what happened and what's next. Access Now. https://www.accessnow.org/a-shutdown-taints-togos-2020-presidential-elections-what-happened-and-whats-next/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Bischoff, P. (2020). Internet Censorship 2020: A Global Map of Internet Restrictions. Comparitech. https://www.comparitech.com/blog/vpn-privacy/internet-censorship-map/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Carsten, P. (2014). Google's Gmail blocked in China. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-google-china/googles-gmail-blocked-in-china-idUSKBN0K70BD20141229</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Censored Planet (2020). Censored Planet Raw Data. https://censoredplanet.org/data/raw</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">CIPESA (2019). State of Internet Freedom in Africa 2019. Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa. https://cipesa.org/?wpfb_dl=307</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Clark, J., Faris, R. Jones, R.H., (2017a). Analyzing Accessibility of Wikipedia Projects Around the World. Berkman Klein Center for Internet &amp; Society Research Publication.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Clark, J., Faris, R., Morrison-Westphal, R., Noman H., Tilton, C., &amp; Zittrain, J. (2017b). The Shifting Landscape of Global Internet Censorship. Berkman Klein Center for Internet &amp; Society Research Publication.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Cohen-Almagor, R. (2013). Internet History. In Luppicini, R. (Eds.), Moral, Ethical, and Social Dilemmas in the Age of Technology: Theories and Practice (pp. 19-39). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2931-8.ch002</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Coppedge, M., Gerring, J., Knutsen, C. H., Lindberg S. I., Teorell, J., Altman, D., Bernhard, M., Fish, M. S., Glynn, A., Hicken, A., Luhrmann, A., Marquardt, K. L., McMann, K., Paxton, P., Pemstein, D., Seim, B., Sigman, R., Skaaning, S., Staton, J., Wilson, S., Cornell, A., Alizada, N., Gastaldi, L., Gjerløw, H., Hindle, G., Ilchenko, N., Maxwell, L., Mechkova, V., Medzihorsky, J., von Römer, J. Sundström, A., Tzelgov, E., Wang, Y., Wig, T., &amp; Ziblatt, D. (2020). V-Dem Dataset v10. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project. https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemds20.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Corduneanu-Huci, C., &amp; Hamilton, A. (2018). Selective Control: The Political Economy of Censorship. World Bank Group.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Crandall, J. R., Crete-Nishihata, &amp; M., Knockel, J. (2015). Forgive Us our SYNs: Technical and Ethical Considerations for Measuring Internet Filtering. NS Ethics '15: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Ethics in Networked Systems Research.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Dahan, N. (2019). Internet, interrupted: How network cuts are used to quell dissent in the Middle East. Middle East Eye. https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/internet-interrupted-how-middle-east-countries-use-network-restrictions-clamp-down-dissent</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Dalek, J., Deibert, R., McKune, S., Gill, P., Senft, A., &amp; Noor, N. (2015). Information Controls during Military Operations The case of Yemen during the 2015 political and armed conflict. University of Toronto. https://citizenlab.ca/2015/10/information-controls-military-operations-yemen/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Engagemedia &amp; Sinar Project (2018). Internet Censorship Monitoring: Duterte's Drug War. https://sinarproject.org/digital-rights/updates/internet-censorship-monitoring-dutertes-drug-war</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Faris, R. &amp; Villeneuve, N. (2008). Measuring Global Internet Filtering in R. Deibert, J. Palfrey, R. Rohozinski, &amp; J. Zittrain, (Eds.), Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, Cambridge: MIT Press. http://opennet.net/sites/opennet.net/files/Deibert_02_Ch01_005-028.pdf</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Farivar, C., &amp; Blankstein, A. (2019). Feds take down the 'world's largest dark web child porn marketplace.' NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/crime-courts/feds-take-down-world-s-largest-dark-web-child-porn-n1066511</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Farrell, H. (2012). The Consequences of the Internet for Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 15, 35-52.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Frantz, E., Kendall-Taylor, A., &amp; Wright, J. (2020). Digital Repression in Autocracies. The Varieties of Democracy Institute.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Freedom House (2019). Freedom on the Net Research Methodology. https://freedomhouse.org/reports/freedom-net/freedom-net-research-methodology</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Freyburg, T. &amp; Garbe, L. (2018). Blocking the Bottleneck: Internet Shutdowns and Ownership at Election Times in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Communication, 12(2018), 3896-3916.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Gold, H. (2019). Information war escalates as Venezuela tries to contain uprising. CNN Business. https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/01/media/media-venezuela-information-war/index.html</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Gopaldas, R. (2019). Digital Dictatorship versus Digital Democracy in Africa. SAIIA Policy Insights 75.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Gueorguiev, D., Shao, L., &amp; Crabtree, C. (2017). Blurring the Lines: Rethinking Censorship Under Autocracy. 10.13140/RG.2.2.29037.08160.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Hall, R. (2019). Lebanon blocks Grindr in latest attack on LGBT+ community. The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/grindr-lebanon-ban-lgbt-rights-dating-app-gay-a8933556.html</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Howard, P., Agarwal, S.D., &amp; Hussain, M. M. (2011). When Do States Disconnect Their Digital Networks? Regime Responses to the Political Uses of Social Media. The Communication Review, 14, 216-232.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Hoang, P. N., Doreen, S., Polychronakis, M., (2019). Measuring I2P Censorship at a Global Scale. In Proceedings of the 9th USENIX Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Immigration and Customs Enforcement (2018). Over a million websites seized in global operation. ICE Newsroom. https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/over-million-websites-seized-global-operation</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Karatnycky, A., Piano, A., Puddington, A. (2003). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights &amp; Civil Liberties. Freedom House.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Kravets, D. (2012). Uncle Sam: If It Ends in .Com It's .Seizable. Wired.com. https://www.wired.com/2012/03/feds-seize-foreign-sites/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Lakshmana, K.V. (2018). A Coward's Political Weapon: Troll armies go on settling scores. Common Cause, 37(4), 27-29.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Leberknight, C.S., Chiang, M., Poor, H. V., Wong, F. (2012). A Taxonomy of Internet Censorship and Anti-Censorship.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Maréchal, N. (2017). Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy. Media and Communication, 5(1), 29-41.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">McColm, R.B., Finn, J., Payne, D.W., Ryan, J.E., Sussman, L.R., Zarycky, G. (1991). Freedom in the World Political Rights &amp; Civil Liberties. Freedom House.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">McDevitt, D. (2017). Rwanda censors critical, independent media in targeted fashion. Open Technology Fund. https://www.opentech.fund/news/new-report-investigates-internet-censorship-during-rwandas-2017-presidential-election/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Mechkova, V., Daniel P., Brigitte S., &amp; Steven W. (2020). Digital Society Project Dataset v2. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Millennium Challenge Corporation (2019). Guide to the MCC Indicators for Fiscal Year 2020. Millennium Challenge Corporation. https://www.mcc.gov/resources/doc/guide-to-the-indicators-fy-2020</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Narayanan A, &amp; Zevenbergen B. (2015). No Encore for Encore? Ethical questions for web-based censorship measurement. Technology Science. http://techscience.org/a/2015121501.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">NetBlocks (2020). Internet cut in Ethiopia amid unrest following killing of singer. NetBlocks Mapping Net Freedom. https://netblocks.org/reports/internet-cut-in-ethiopia-amid-unrest-following-killing-of-singer-pA25Z28b</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Niaki, A.A., Cho, S., Weinberg Z., Hoang, N.P., Razaghpanah, A., Christin, N., Gill, P. (2020). ICLab: A Global, Longitudinal Internet Censorship Measurement Platform. Proceedings of the 41st IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">OONI (2020). OONI Data Explorer. https://explorer.ooni.org/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Parks, L. &amp; Thompson R. (2020). The Slow Shutdown: Information and Internet Regulation in Tanzania From 2010 to 2018 and Impacts on Online Content Creators. International Journal of Communication, 14(2020), 1-21.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Pearce, P., Ensafi, R., Li, F., Feamster, N. &amp; Paxson, V. (2018). "Toward Continual Measurement of Global Network-Level Censorship. IEEE Security &amp; Privacy, 16(1), 24-33, 10.1109/MSP.2018.1331018.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Pemstein, D., Marquardt, K. L., Tzelgov, E., Wang, Y., Medzihorsky, J., Krusell, J., Miri, F., &amp; von Römer, J. (2020). The V-Dem Measurement Model: Latent Variable Analysis for Cross-National and Cross-Temporal Expert-Coded Data. V-Dem Working Paper No. 21. 5th edition. University of Gothenburg: Varieties of Democracy Institute.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Puyosa, I. &amp; Chaguaceda, A (2017). Cinco regímenes políticos en Latinoamérica, libertad de internet y mecanismos de control. RETOS, 7(14), 11-37.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Rahimi, N. &amp; Gupta, B. (2020). A Study of the Landscape of Internet Censorship and Anti-Censorship in Middle East. EPiC Series in Computing: Proceeding of the 35th International Conference on Computers and Their Applications. 69, 60-68.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Raman, R. S., Stoll, A., Dalek, J., Sarabi, A., Ramesh, R. Scott, W., &amp; Ensafi, R. (2020). Measuring the Deployment of Network Censorship Filters at Global Scale. Network and Distributed System Security (NDSS) Symposium 2020.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Raveendran, N., &amp; Leberknight, C.S. (2018). Internet Censorship and Economic Impacts: A Case Study of Internet Outages in India. Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521, U.S. 811 (1997).</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Reporters Without Borders (2020). World Press Freedom Index. https://rsf.org/en/ranking</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Roberts, H., Zuckerman, E., &amp; Palfrey, J. (2011). 2011 Circumvention Tool Evaluation. The Berkman Center for Internet &amp; Society Research Publication Series.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Rydzak, J.A. (2018). A Total Eclipse of the Net: The Dynamics of Network Shutdowns and Collective Action Responses. University of Arizona.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Rydzak, J. (2019). Of Blackouts and Bandhs: The Strategy and Structure of Disconnected Protest in India. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3330413</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Sagir, M. &amp; Varlioglu, S. (2020). Explaining the Relationship between Internet and Democracy in Partly Free Countries Using Machine Learning Models. IT Research Symposium 2020.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Sayadi, E. &amp; Taye, B. (2020). #KeepItOn: As Yemen's war goes online, internet shutdowns and censorship are hurting Yemenis. https://www.accessnow.org/keepiton-as-yemens-war-goes-online-internet-shutdowns-and-censorship-are-hurting-yemenis/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Selva, M. (2019). Reaching for the off switch: Internet shutdowns are growing as nations seek to control public access to information. Index on Censorship, 48(3), 19-22.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Shahbaz, A. &amp; Funk, A. (2020). Freedom on the Net 2019: The Crisis of Social Media. Freedom House.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Sisario, B (2010). U.S. Shuts Down Web Sites in Piracy Crackdown. New York Times.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">SK, C. (2020). Those Unspoken Thoughts A study of censorship and median freedom in Manipur, India. Open Observatory of Network Interference.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Sfakianakis, A., Athanasopoulos, E., Ioannidis, S. (2011). CensMon: A Web Censorship Monitor. In Proceedings of USENIX FOCI 2011.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Subramanian, R. (2012). The Growth of Global Internet Censorship and Circumvention: A Survey. Communication of the International Information Management Association.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Sutterlin, E. (2020). Flipping the Kill-Switch: Why Governments Shut Down the Internet. Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 1493.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Stepanova, E. (2011). The Role of Information Communication Technologies the "Arab Spring." PONARS Eurasia.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Taye, B. (2020). Targeted, Cut Off, and Left in the Dark The #KeepItOn Report on internet shutdowns in 2019. Access Now. https://www.accessnow.org/keepiton/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">USAID (2019). FY 2020 USAID Journey to Self-Reliance Country Roadmap Methodology Guide. https://selfreliance.usaid.gov/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">USAID (2020). Digital Strategy 2020-2024. United States Agency for International Development. https://www.usaid.gov/usaid-digital-strategy</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">VanderSloot, B., McDonald, A., Scott, W., Halderman, J.A., &amp; Ensafi, R. (2018). Quack: Scalable Remote Measurement of Application-Layer Censorship. In Proceedings of the 27th USENIX Security Symposium.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Wagner, B., Gollatz, K., Calderaro, A. (2013). Common Narrative – Divergent Agendas: The Internet and Human Rights in Foreign Policy. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Internet Science.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Weaver, N., Sommer, R., &amp; Paxson, V. (2009) Detecting Forged TCP Reset Packets. International Computer Science Institute.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Weinberg, Z. (2018). Toward Automated Worldwide Monitoring of Network-level Censorship. Carnegie Mellon University.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">West, D.M. (2016). Internet Shutdowns cost countries $2.4 billion last year. Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Woodhams, S. &amp; Migliano, S. (2020). The Global Cost of Internet Shutdowns in 2019. Top10VPN.com.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Yadav, T. K., &amp; Chakravarty, S. (2018). Trends and patterns of internet censorship in India. Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="999" ind1="C" ind2="5">
    <subfield code="x">Zeleke, T. A. (2019). The Quandary of Cyber Governance in Ethiopia. Journal of Public Policy and Administration, 3(1), 1-7.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="041" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">eng</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="653" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Internet Censorship</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="653" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Internet Shutdown</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="653" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Internet Filtering</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="653" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Remote Measurement</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="653" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Expert Analysis</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <controlfield tag="005">20200731072150.0</controlfield>
  <datafield tag="500" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Included with the paper are the raw data files from Freedom House, V-Dem, Access Now, and ONI used in the analysis and the Stata do file used to compile and analyze these data.</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <controlfield tag="001">3967398</controlfield>
  <datafield tag="711" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="d">15-17 September 2020</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Data for Policy 2020</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="700" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="u">Millennium Challenge Corporation</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Hayes-Birchler, Andria</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">253742</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:24c327e2960a424cbd13b25a19395aba</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/114_Fletcher.pdf</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">45795</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:1ed3b264280d153fb08181448dc54541</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/Comparing Measures of Internet Censorship.do</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">13446224</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:1a22818579d4a0ba886bed7da9dbc8e2</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/DSP-Dataset-v2.dta</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">15314</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:eb4ef502c1a8a9eacdeac34b236389b5</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/FOTN 2015_Key Internet Controls table (MCC).xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">16546</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:bb897266565be9b8b762edb70319a7b8</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/FOTN 2017_Key Internet Controls table (MCC).xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">19281</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:2ea58848161802b0cd62596df1fde244</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/FOTN 2018_Key Internet Controls data (MCC).xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">19174</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:ad55739a50de4bc8121f8e153f57834c</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/FOTN 2019_Key Internet Controls data (MCC).xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">17702</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:9e399a5e3f24279ca4c9c2f4261a98f1</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/FY17 KiC Data 9.28.16.xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">137215</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:d43aa3fc49c4262f4098d02643a6a180</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/KeepItON-Internet-Shutdown-Data-STOP-Shutdown-Tracker-2019-Complete.csv</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">9504</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:45a61b46b55ad755c974812b87d04178</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/oni_country_data_2013-09-20.csv</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="s">349674</subfield>
    <subfield code="z">md5:775042efb273197359a4c204790aeb8a</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://zenodo.org/record/3967398/files/Shutdown-Tracker-Optimization-Project-11-Jun-2018-edition.xlsx</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="542" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="l">open</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="856" ind1="4" ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="y">Conference website</subfield>
    <subfield code="u">https://dataforpolicy.org/</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="260" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="c">2020-07-30</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="909" ind1="C" ind2="O">
    <subfield code="p">openaire</subfield>
    <subfield code="p">user-dfp17</subfield>
    <subfield code="o">oai:zenodo.org:3967398</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="100" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="u">Millennium Challenge Corporation</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Fletcher, Terry</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="245" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Comparing Measures of Internet Censorship: Analyzing the Tradeoffs between Expert Analysis and Remote Measurement</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="980" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">user-dfp17</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="540" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="u">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="650" ind1="1" ind2="7">
    <subfield code="a">cc-by</subfield>
    <subfield code="2">opendefinition.org</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="520" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;As the internet increasingly becomes a leading tool for exchanging information, governments around the world sometimes seek methods to restrict citizens&amp;rsquo; access. Two of the most common methods for restricting the internet are shutting down internet access entirely and filtering specific content. We compare the tradeoffs between measuring these phenomena using expert analysis (as measured by Freedom House and V-Dem) and remote measurement with manual oversight (as measured by Access Now and the OpenNet Initiative (ONI)). We find that remote measurement with manual oversight is less likely to include false positives, while expert analysis is less likely to include false negatives.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="773" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="n">doi</subfield>
    <subfield code="i">isVersionOf</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">10.5281/zenodo.3967397</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="024" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">10.5281/zenodo.3967398</subfield>
    <subfield code="2">doi</subfield>
  </datafield>
  <datafield tag="980" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">publication</subfield>
    <subfield code="b">conferencepaper</subfield>
  </datafield>
</record>
596
460
views
downloads
All versions This version
Views 596596
Downloads 460460
Data volume 285.3 MB285.3 MB
Unique views 544544
Unique downloads 372372

Share

Cite as