Journal article Open Access

Quality improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) meat fortified T with n-3 PUFA

Sobczak Małgorzata; Panicz Remigiusz; Eljasik Piotr; Sadowski Jacek; Tórz Agnieszka; Żochowska-Kujawska Joanna; Barbosa Vera; Domingues Valentina; Marques Antonio; Dias Jorge

Fish feeding Schizchytrium sp. Fillet
Nutritional value Sensory properties

1. Introduction

Fish in the human diet are a source of easily digestible proteins, nutritious fats and fat-soluble vitamins (D, A), as well as micro- and macro-elements (e.g. I, Ca, Se). Fish lipids are particularly valuable because of their favorable fatty acid profile, including the high pro- portion of long-chain fatty acids, especially n-3 and n-6 EFA (essential fatty acid). Fatty acids EPA (20:5, n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (22:6, n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) have a very positive effect on health and are recommended for the reduction of cardiovascular disease (Calder, 2006; Calder and Yaqoob, 2009, 2010). Despite the high nu- tritional value of fish, consumption is far below levels recommended by nutritionists. The World Health Organization, together with Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO, 2003), recommend regular con- sumption of fish (1–2 times a week), including one portion of oily fish providing 200–500 mg of EPA and DHA. Despite these recommenda- tions, most consumers globally eat fish less than once a week

∗ Corresponding author. Department of Meat Science, Faculty of Food Science 71-550, Szczecin, Poland.

E-mail address: (P. Eljasik).

Received 20 January 2020; Received in revised form 9 March 2020; Accepted

Available online 17 March 2020
0278-6915/ © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The effect of carp feeding with n-3 PUFA-enriched feed (Schizochytrium sp. meal or salmon oil) on nutritional quality indicators (proximal composition, fatty acid profile of fat) and culinary quality (color parameters, tex- ture, sensory properties) was evaluated. Highly significant effects of carp nutrition on chemical composition and fat characteristics, L* and a* color parameters, muscle fiber size, endomysium thickness, moisture and taste of fillets were determined. Fillets obtained from carps fed with the experimental feed contained less protein and more crude fat and had larger muscle fibers, but scored more highly in the sensory evaluation of moisture and fishy taste. In the fat of carp fed the enriched feed, a greater share of total PUFA, n-3 PUFA, total EPA and DHA, n-3/n-6 ratio, and a smaller share of total MUFA were observed compared with control fish. However, no effect of nutrition on the texture of carp fillets, assessed either instrumentally or using sensory methods, was found. The use of Schizchytrium sp. meal as a source of EPA and DHA gave much better results than salmon oil, as it allowed a higher content of these valuable fatty acids to be achieved, without compromising quality.

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