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The impact of stellar rotation on the black hole mass-gap from pair-instability supernovae

Pablo Marchant; Takashi Moriya

Necessary files to reproduce the simulations of the paper "The impact of stellar rotation on the black hole mass-gap from pair-instability supernovae", as well as simulation output.

These simulations were performed using MESA version 13311, with a small bugfix that can be applied with the provided hydro_riemann.f90 file.

A description of the included files is as follows:

  • final_profiles.tar.gz: Individual profiles for all models at iron-core collapse (or last profile for PISN models). Files are separated into three folders, 'non_rot', 'rot_ST', 'rot_no_ST' corresponding to non-rotating models, rotating models with ST and rotating models without ST. Names of individual files contain the initial mass and the initial ratio between surface omega and its critical value. So for example, a file named "" represents an initial mass of 50 Msun and an initial rotation rate of 0.9 times critical. This work only contains non-rotating models and models at 0.9 critical though.
  • histories.tar.gz: MESA history files containing various stellar properties describable by a single number at each timestep of the simulation (for instance, mass, effective temperature, etc...). Files follow the same naming scheme as those in final_profiles.tar.gz. For each simulation there is an additional file with a name ending in "pulse_indexes" that contains various lines with two integers per line. These specify for PPISN models the simulation step (or model_number in MESA-speak) at which a pulsation begins, and the step at which it ends.
  • tables.tar.gz: Machine readable tables summarizing our simulations, these correspond to the data shown in the tables in the paper. The names of the tables "non_rot.txt", "rot_ST.txt" and "rot_no_ST.txt" correspond to non-rotating models, rotating models with ST and rotation models without ST respectively. The meaning of each column is:
    • M_i[Msun]: Initial mass of the helium star
    • (om/omc)_i: Ratio between omega and its critical value at the star of core helium burning.
    • M_Hedep[Msun]: Mass of the star at core helium depletion
    • M_CO[Msun]: Carbon oxygen core mass at core helium depletion. Defined as the innermost mass coordinate at which Y<0.01.
    • M_preSN[Msun]: Mass at the onset of PPISN/PISN. For models that do not undergo pair-instability, it corresponds to the mass at iron-core collapse.
    • M_He,preSN[Msun]: Total mass in helium of the star at the onset of PPISN/PISN, or at iron-core collapse for non pair-unstable models. This does not represent the mass of the helium-rich envelope, but the total baryonic mass in helium of the star.
    • M_ejecta[Msun]: Mass ejected by pulsations.
    • M_final[Msun]: Final mass of the star at iron-core collapse.
    • number_of_pulses: Number of pulsations.
    • time_to_coll[yrs]: Time between the first pulse and iron-core collapse.
    • max_KE[foe]: Maximum kinetic energy achieved by any pulse, measured in 10^51 erg/s=1 foe.
    • a_i: Dimensionless spin of the star (a=jc/Gm) at the beginning of core helium burning.
    • a_he_dep: Dimensionless spin at core helium depletion
    • a_preSN: Dimensionless spin at the onset of PPISN/PISN.
    • a_f: Final dimensionless spin from our simulations at iron-core collapse.
    • BH_mass[Msun]: Final BH mass predicted from the properties of our model at iron-core collapse following Batta & Ramirez-Ruiz (2019).
    • BH_spin: Final BH spin predicted from the properties of our model at iron-core collapse following Batta & Ramirez-Ruiz (2019).
  • pulses.tar.gz: Information on individual pulses for each PPISN simulation in our grid. Files are contained in three separate folders "non_rot", "rot_ST" and "rot_no_ST" for models that are non-rotating, rotating with ST and rotating without ST respectively. Naming of individual files is the same as those in final_profiles.tar.gz. Information contained in these tables is:
    • pulse_num: Integer identifying the pulse.
    • ejecta[Msun]: Total mass ejected by the pulse.
    • time_to_coll[yrs]: Time between the onset of this pulse and iron-core collapse.
    • KE[foe]: Maximum kinetic energy reached during the pulse.
  • template_ST.tar.gz: Template used for simulations. This template is setup for the simulations that include the ST dynamo and have an initial rotation rate of 90% critical. To modify the rotation rate and the initial mass, modify new_omega_div_omega_crit and initial_mass in the inlist_extra file. To turn of ST, set am_nu_ST_factor=0 in inlist_ppisn. Only one model required additional tuning to comple, the 60 Msun rotating model with ST. For this one, the model was restarted at step 98000 with the value of the option x_ctrl(18) switched from 0.025d0 to 0.25d0. This particular simulation did not reach the automated terminating condition and was stopped manually, but at the end it does have a collapsing iron-core with an infall velocity ~5000 km/s.
  • notebook.tar.gz: jupyter notebook used to process the data from our simulations and produce tables and figures (except for the information on the spin of the primary BH of GW170729).
  • GW170729_spin.tar.gz: jupyter notebook used to compute the spin posterior of GW170729 using the data from the first catalogue of gravitational wave transients.
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