Conference paper Open Access

Effects of female genital mutilation on physical, social and psychological health of the victims

Kirigia, Consolata

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  "publisher": "Zenodo", 
  "DOI": "10.5281/zenodo.3911148", 
  "title": "Effects of female genital mutilation on physical, social and psychological health of the victims", 
  "issued": {
    "date-parts": [
  "abstract": "Female circumcision also known as female genital mutilation \n(FGM), involves none medical cutting or removal of some parts \nor the entire external female genitalia. FGM is known to cause \nphysical health problems such as scaring or formation of keloids, \ninfertility, infections and menstrual difficulties. FGM also causes \ncomplications during labor and delivery, which include prolonged \nlabor, post-partum hemorrhage and perineal tears. Psychological \nproblems are major effects such as depression, low self-esteem \nand post-traumatic stress syndrome. Social health problems \nto victims and indirectly to significant others may include lack \nof intimacy related to sexual dysfunction like arousal, orgasm, \nlubrication and satisfaction. The practice is very rampant in most \nAfrican countries and the effects have global impacts. Much is \nbeing done to try and alleviate the suffering of the victims as well \nas trying to eradicate the practice by educating communities \nthrough their leaders, men involvement and coming up with \npolicies that protect the rights of women against such gender \nbased violence. Studies have been done on FGM but still there \nis literature gap on the global physical, social and psychological \neffects of FGM. These effects need to be studied specifically on \nthe victims as the study group and the survivors as the control \ngroup. Such studies will provide evidence to healthcare providers \nto effectively initiate high quality medical care to both the victims \nand the survivors of FGM.", 
  "author": [
      "family": "Kirigia, Consolata"
  "type": "paper-conference", 
  "id": "3911148"
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