Conference paper Open Access
Female circumcision also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), involves none medical cutting or removal of some parts or the entire external female genitalia. FGM is known to cause physical health problems such as scaring or formation of keloids, infertility, infections and menstrual difficulties. FGM also causes complications during labor and delivery, which include prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and perineal tears. Psychological problems are major effects such as depression, low self-esteem and post-traumatic stress syndrome. Social health problems to victims and indirectly to significant others may include lack of intimacy related to sexual dysfunction like arousal, orgasm, lubrication and satisfaction. The practice is very rampant in most African countries and the effects have global impacts. Much is being done to try and alleviate the suffering of the victims as well as trying to eradicate the practice by educating communities through their leaders, men involvement and coming up with policies that protect the rights of women against such gender based violence. Studies have been done on FGM but still there is literature gap on the global physical, social and psychological effects of FGM. These effects need to be studied specifically on the victims as the study group and the survivors as the control group. Such studies will provide evidence to healthcare providers to effectively initiate high quality medical care to both the victims and the survivors of FGM.