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El rol de la vitamina D en la infección por SARS-CoV-2

Mayares Villegas, Guillermo


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    "description": "<p>Recibido: 01/06/2020.</p>\n\n<p>Aceptado: 09/06/2020.</p>\n\n<p>Publicado: 09/06/2020.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>RESUMEN</strong></p>\n\n<p>En diciembre de 2019, una serie de enfermedades respiratorias agudas at&iacute;picas acontecieron en Wuhan, provincia de Hubei, China. Pronto se descubri&oacute; que el agente causal era un coronavirus, el cual fue denominado 2019-nCov (SARS-CoV-2), y COVID-19 fue el acr&oacute;nimo recomendado por la Organizaci&oacute;n Mundial de la Salud para referirse a la enfermedad.&nbsp; La expansi&oacute;n del virus fue tan r&aacute;pida que para el 30 de enero del 2020, el Director General de la Organizaci&oacute;n Mundial de la Salud, el Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, declar&oacute; el brote como una emergencia de salud p&uacute;blica de importancia internacional.</p>\n\n<p>A falta de una vacuna para prevenir el COVID-19, y debido a la cr&iacute;tica situaci&oacute;n que nos acontece por la agresividad de la pandemia, se requiere de manera urgente una medida terap&eacute;utica que disminuya el riesgo de infecci&oacute;n o el agravamiento de la enfermedad. En el presente escrito, se discute la importancia de la suplementaci&oacute;n de vitamina D como una herramienta de protecci&oacute;n para mantener un adecuado funcionamiento del sistema inmune. Se plantean 3 posibles mecanismos por los cuales la vitamina D puede ejercer un efecto protector ante el SARS-CoV-2: respuesta antimicrobiana a trav&eacute;s de la inducci&oacute;n de catelicidinas y defensinas, respuesta antiinflamatoria al regular negativamente la producci&oacute;n de citocinas proinflamatorias (IL-1, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-&alpha;, INF), y la inducci&oacute;n de la autofagia al regular prote&iacute;nas relacionadas con la autofagia (AMPK, mTOR, Beclin1/PI3K, catelicidina). Estos mecanismos podr&iacute;an disminuir la proliferaci&oacute;n de dicho virus y reducir el da&ntilde;o tisular generado por la inflamaci&oacute;n.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p>\n\n<p>In December 2019, a series of atypical acute respiratory illnesses occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The causative agent was soon discovered to be a coronavirus, which was dubbed 2019-nCov (SARS-CoV-2), and COVID-19 was the acronym recommended by the World Health Organization to refer to the disease. The spread of the virus was so rapid that by January 30, 2020, the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, declared the outbreak to be a public health emergency of international importance.</p>\n\n<p>In the absence of a vaccine to prevent COVID-19, and due to the critical situation that is happening to us due to the aggressiveness of the pandemic, a therapeutic measure is urgently required to reduce the risk of infection or the worsening of the disease. In this paper, the importance of vitamin D supplementation as a protection tool to maintain proper functioning of the immune system is discussed. 3 possible mechanisms are proposed by which vitamin D can exert a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2: antimicrobial response through the induction of cathelicidins and defensins, anti-inflammatory response by negatively regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-&alpha;, INF), and autophagy induction by regulating autophagy-related proteins (AMPK, mTOR, Beclin1 / PI3K, cathelicidin). These mechanisms could decrease the proliferation of said virus and reduce the tissue damage generated by inflammation.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>2020 &copy; Revista Cadena de Cerebros</strong></p>\n\n<p><strong><a href=\"https://www.cadenadecerebros.com\">www.cadenadecerebros.com</a></strong></p>\n\n<p><strong>e-ISSN: 2448-8178.</strong></p>", 
    "language": "spa", 
    "title": "El rol de la vitamina D en la infecci\u00f3n por SARS-CoV-2", 
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      "volume": "4", 
      "issue": "1", 
      "pages": "50-54", 
      "title": "Revista Cadena de Cerebros"
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    "references": [
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      "Baladia E, Almendra R, Marqu\u00e9s M, Mo\u00f1ino M, Mart\u00ednez P, Camacho S, et al. Suplementaci\u00f3n con Vitamina D durante el distanciamiento social por la crisis sanitaria del COVID19. Postura de la Academia Espa\u00f1ola de Nutrici\u00f3n y Diet\u00e9tica y del Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Dietistas-Nutricionistas. \u00daltima actualizaci\u00f3n 2 de abril de 2020. REDNuBE: Academia Espa\u00f1ola de Nutrici\u00f3n y Diet\u00e9tica, CGCODN; 2020.  Disponible en: https://academianutricionydietetica.org/NOTICIAS/VitaminaD-COVID19.pdf", 
      "University Hospital, Angers. COvid-19 and Vitamin D Supplementation: a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of High Dose Versus Standard Dose Vitamin D3 in High-risk COVID-19 Patients (CoVitTrial). ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04344041. Disponible en: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04344041", 
      "Contreras-Manzano A, Villalpando S, Robledo-P\u00e9rez R. Vitamin D status by sociodemographic factors and body mass index in Mexican women at reproductive age. Salud Publica Mex 2017; 59: 518-25. DOI: 10.21149/8080"
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    "keywords": [
      "Coronavirus", 
      "Vitamina D", 
      "Suplementaci\u00f3n", 
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      "Vitamin D", 
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    "publication_date": "2020-06-09", 
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