Journal article Open Access
The standard model of particle physics classifies particles into elementary leptons and hadrons composed of quarks. There exists an alternate ordering principle based on a function Ψ that may be derived from the framework of the Einstein field equations, giving a convergent series of particle energies, to be quantized as a function of the fine-structure constant, α, with limits given by the energy values of the electron and the Higgs vacuum expectation value. The series expansion of the energy equation provides quantitative terms for Coulomb, strong and gravitational interaction. The value of α can be given numerically by the gamma functions of the integrals involved, extending the formalism to N-dimensions yields a single expression for the electroweak coupling constants.
The model can be expressed without use of free parameters.