Report Open Access

Third Cycle of the Universal Periodic Review: Concerning the Republic of Iraq

Fobbe, Sean; Palmero Fernández, Mónica; Matthews, Roger



In March 2019, RASHID International submitted a report concerning the Republic of Iraq as part of the third cycle of the UPR, to be the basis for the 2019 review of Iraq. The report discusses the neglect of cultural rights in the UPR, the death penalty for antiquities trafficking, the Iraqi implementation of international law for the protection of cultural property in armed conflict, the illicit trade in antiquities, the right to cultural heritage in Iraq, the equal enjoyment of cultural rights by women and uncontrolled urban development.



The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a regular review of the human rights record of all States in the world. Continuously conducted by the UN Human Rights Council, each State is reviewed every four and a half years on the basis of information submitted by NGOs, the United Nations and the State concerned.


About RASHID International

RASHID International is a worldwide network of archaeologists and cultural heritage experts dedicated to safeguarding and promoting the cultural heritage of Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. To assist our Iraqi colleagues, we collect and share information, research and expert knowledge, work to raise public awareness, and both develop and execute strategies to protect heritage sites and other cultural property through international cooperation, advocacy and technical assistance.

RASHID International is registered as a non-profit organisation in Germany and enjoys charitable tax-exempt status under German law. We are an organisation in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2019. Learn more about our work at

All of our research is available open access here:


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