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An Investigation around Kragos in Lycia: The Question of Sidyma and Kalabatia

Onur, Fatih


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    "description": "<p>--ENGLISH BELOW--<br>\nGEN\u0130\u015eLET\u0130LM\u0130\u015e &Ouml;ZET - K&uuml;lt&uuml;r ve Turizm Bakanl\u0131\u011f\u0131&rsquo;n\u0131n izni ile 2004 y\u0131l\u0131ndan itibaren Lykia&rsquo;daki antik yollar ve yerle\u015fim co\u011frafyas\u0131 &uuml;zerine s&uuml;rd&uuml;r&uuml;len ara\u015ft\u0131rmalar\u0131n 2017-2018 d&ouml;nemlerinde Sidyma antik kenti ve &ccedil;evresindeki baz\u0131 sorulara y&ouml;nelik incelemelerle baz\u0131 sorunlara y&ouml;nelik yeni bak\u0131\u015f a&ccedil;\u0131lar\u0131 sa\u011flam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Bu makalede &uuml;zerinde durulan konu temel olarak Patara Yol An\u0131t\u0131&rsquo;nda verilen Sidyma &ccedil;\u0131k\u0131\u015fl\u0131 yolun var\u0131\u015f hedefine y&ouml;nelik olmakla birlikte, konu kapsam\u0131nda pek &ccedil;ok detay inceleme yap\u0131lm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Bu yolun hedefinin yaz\u0131ld\u0131\u011f\u0131 blok bulunamam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. An\u0131ttaki yaz\u0131t\u0131n yay\u0131mlar\u0131nda bu yol &ldquo;Sidyma&rsquo;dan [Kalabanti]a&rsquo;ya 24 stadion (yak. 4,5 km)&rdquo; \u015feklinde tamamlanm\u0131\u015f olup, kay\u0131 olan hedef yerle\u015fimin Sidyma&rsquo;n\u0131n yak. 8 km kadar bat\u0131s\u0131ndaki k\u0131y\u0131da yer alan ve pek &ccedil;ok ara\u015ft\u0131rmac\u0131 taraf\u0131ndan Kalaba(n/t)tia ile &ouml;zde\u015fle\u015ftirilen Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131 kal\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131 olabilece\u011fi &ouml;nerilmi\u015fti. Yerle\u015fimin ad\u0131 Kalabantia, Kalabattia ve Kalabatia formlar\u0131nda g&ouml;r&uuml;lmekle birlikte, yazar TAM II 174&rsquo;e g&ouml;re do\u011fru adland\u0131rmay\u0131 Kalabatia olarak kabul etmektedir.<br>\nBahsi ge&ccedil;en tamamlama ve buna g&ouml;re yap\u0131lan &ccedil;\u0131kar\u0131mlarla ili\u015fkili temel sorunlar \u015fu \u015fekildedir: 1) Kalabantia tamamlamas\u0131 kesin de\u011fildir. Bu tamamlama temel olarak &ldquo;Hiera Akra&rsquo;dan Kalabantia&rsquo;ya 30 stadion. Kalabantia&rsquo;dan Perdikiai&rsquo;a kadar 50 stadion&rdquo; ifadesine yer veren Stadiasmus Maris Magni&rsquo;ye g&ouml;re yap\u0131lm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Patara Yol An\u0131t\u0131&rsquo;nda ilgili k\u0131sm\u0131n verildi\u011fi yer, &uuml;st&uuml;ndeki ve alt\u0131ndaki sat\u0131rlara g&ouml;re yar\u0131 &ouml;l&ccedil;&uuml;de k&uuml;&ccedil;&uuml;k yaz\u0131lm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r ve bu alanda yakla\u015f\u0131k 20-23 harflik bir bo\u015fluk bulunmaktad\u0131r, bu nedenle &epsilon;[\u1f30&sigmaf; &Kappa;&alpha;&lambda;&alpha;&beta;&alpha;&nu;&tau;\u03af]&alpha;&nu; (&ldquo;Kalabantia&rsquo;ya&rdquo;) tamamlamas\u0131 her ko\u015fulda eksik ya da yanl\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. 2) E\u011fer Kalabantia tamamlamas\u0131 do\u011fru ise &ndash; Patara Yol An\u0131t\u0131&rsquo;nda ge&ccedil;en yerle\u015fimlerin ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z oldu\u011fu kabul edildi\u011fi takdirde &ndash; Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n Claudius D&ouml;nemi&rsquo;nde ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z bir yerle\u015fim olmas\u0131 beklenece\u011finden bu yerle\u015fimin politik stat&uuml;s&uuml;n&uuml;n incelenmesi gerekmektedir. 3) Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131&rsquo;na yerle\u015ftirilmesi kesin de\u011fildir. Kesin olarak s&ouml;ylenebilecek \u015fey, Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131&rsquo;ndaki mezar yaz\u0131tlar\u0131nda cezalar\u0131n Sidyma&rsquo;ya &ouml;denmesi gerekti\u011fini bildirildi\u011finden, bu yerin bahsi ge&ccedil;en yaz\u0131tlar\u0131n tarihlendi\u011fi \u0130.S. 2.-3. yy&rsquo;larda Sidyma&rsquo;ya ait oldu\u011fudur. 4) An\u0131tta Sidyma &ndash; [Kalabati?]a aras\u0131 i&ccedil;in verilen uzunluk olan yak. 4,5 km, Sidyma ve Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131 aras\u0131ndaki ger&ccedil;ek uzunluk olan 7-8 km&rsquo;nin &ccedil;ok alt\u0131nda kalmaktad\u0131r.<br>\nBu tamamlama sonras\u0131nda, Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131&rsquo;na neden yol verildi\u011fi sorular\u0131na cevap olarak da &ldquo;Sidyma Ku\u015fatmas\u0131&rdquo; teorisi kurgulanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Bu teoriye g&ouml;re Lykia b&ouml;lgesi eyalet yap\u0131l\u0131rken, b&ouml;lgeye hem general hem de vali olarak g&ouml;nderilen Quintus Veranius, g&uuml;n&uuml;m&uuml;zde Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131&rsquo;nda oldu\u011fu d&uuml;\u015f&uuml;n&uuml;len antik Kalabatia&rsquo;dan bir &ccedil;\u0131karma yaparak, Sidyma akropol&uuml;nde toplanan isyanc\u0131lar &uuml;zerine sefer d&uuml;zenlemi\u015f, akropol&uuml; ku\u015fatm\u0131\u015f ve isyanc\u0131lar\u0131 yenmi\u015ftir. Hatta akropoldeki y\u0131k\u0131lm\u0131\u015f baz\u0131 sur duvarlar\u0131n\u0131n bu d&ouml;nemden kalm\u0131\u015f olabilece\u011fi de d&uuml;\u015f&uuml;n&uuml;lm&uuml;\u015ft&uuml;r. Bu &ccedil;\u0131kar\u0131mlar vali Quintus Veranius&rsquo;un mezar yaz\u0131t\u0131nda belirtildi\u011fi &uuml;zere, da\u011fl\u0131k bir b&ouml;lgeye d&uuml;zenlendi\u011fi askeri bir operasyon bilgisine dayanmaktad\u0131r. Pek &ccedil;ok ara\u015ft\u0131rmac\u0131 bu b&ouml;lgenin Kilikia&rsquo;da oldu\u011funu s&ouml;ylerken, s&ouml;z konusu teori bu da\u011fl\u0131k b&ouml;lgeyle Sidyma&rsquo;n\u0131n kastedildi\u011fine kanaat getirmektedir. Makalede Patara Yol An\u0131t\u0131&rsquo;ndaki ilgili k\u0131sm\u0131n yeniden incelenmesi ve arazi ara\u015ft\u0131rmalar\u0131nda elde edilen di\u011fer veriler arac\u0131l\u0131\u011f\u0131yla b&ouml;yle bir teorinin neredeyse imk&acirc;ns\u0131z oldu\u011fu sonucuna ula\u015f\u0131lm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. An\u0131tta Sidyma&rsquo;dan verilen yolun hedefinin Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131 olabilece\u011fini destekleyen bir veri de bulunamam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. An\u0131tta Sidyma ve Pinara aras\u0131nda bir yol verilmedi\u011fi ger&ccedil;e\u011fi, hedefin Pinara olabilece\u011fini akla getirse de, b&ouml;yle bir durum ilgili alanda kalan harfler ve verilen mesafe bak\u0131m\u0131ndan imkans\u0131zd\u0131r. Mesafe sadece yak. 4,5 km oldu\u011fu i&ccedil;in Sidyma ve hedef yerle\u015fim aras\u0131na bir ba\u015fka yerle\u015fimin &ldquo;&delta;&iota;\u03ac + genitif yerle\u015fim ad\u0131&rdquo; \u015feklinde yerle\u015ftirilmesi de hem co\u011frafi nedenlerle hem de Sidyma&rsquo;ya bu mesafeden daha yak\u0131n bir yerle\u015fim olmad\u0131\u011f\u0131ndan m&uuml;mk&uuml;n g&ouml;r&uuml;nmemektedir. Bo\u015flu\u011fa an\u0131tta Idebessos ve Kitanaura aras\u0131nda verilmi\u015f oldu\u011fu gibi, k\u0131sm&icirc; bir yol in\u015fas\u0131 ifadesi de yerle\u015ftirilememektedir. Sonu&ccedil; olarak hedef i&ccedil;in Kalabatia ismi hala en iyi &ouml;neri olarak durmakla birlikte, Sancakl\u0131 Liman\u0131 hedef olamamaktad\u0131r. Bu nedenle arazi &uuml;zerinde Sidyma&rsquo;ya 4,5 km kadar uzakl\u0131kta bulunan bir ba\u015fka yerle\u015fimin olup olmad\u0131\u011f\u0131 ara\u015ft\u0131r\u0131lm\u0131\u015f, Bel Mahallesi&rsquo;ndeki kal\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131n bu mesafeye uydu\u011fu tespit edilmi\u015f ve bu kal\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131n Kalabatia&rsquo;ya ait olup olamayaca\u011f\u0131 sorgulanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. An\u0131ttaki kentlerin ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z olabilece\u011finden hareketle Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n erken imparatorluk d&ouml;nemde ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z olup olamayaca\u011f\u0131 sorusu da bu tart\u0131\u015fmada &ouml;nem arz etmektedir.<br>\nYaz\u0131tlardaki etnikon kullan\u0131m\u0131 Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n erken d&ouml;nemlerde ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z oldu\u011funa dair delil say\u0131labilir. Bunlardan bir tanesi yak\u0131n zamanlarda yay\u0131mlanm\u0131\u015f olan ve Sidyma&rsquo;da bir mezar yaz\u0131t\u0131nda ge&ccedil;en &Kappa;&alpha;&lambda;&alpha;&beta;&alpha;&tau;&tau;&iota;&alpha;&nu;\u03cc&sigmaf; etnikonudur. Yaz\u0131t edit&ouml;r taraf\u0131ndan \u0130.S. 2. yy&rsquo;\u0131n ikinci yar\u0131s\u0131na tarihlenmektedir. Fakat bu yaz\u0131t harf tipleri bak\u0131m\u0131ndan, hatta Patara Yol An\u0131t\u0131&rsquo;n\u0131n harflerine benzer \u015fekilde daha erken &ouml;zellikler g&ouml;stermektedir. Di\u011feri ise yine Sidyma&rsquo;dan bir ba\u015fka yaz\u0131tta [&Kappa;&alpha;]&lambda;&alpha;&beta;&alpha;&tau;&iota;&alpha;&nu;&omicron;\u03af \u015feklinde g&ouml;r&uuml;nmektedir. \u0130.S. 2. yy&rsquo;\u0131n ikinci yar\u0131s\u0131na tarihlenen yaz\u0131t\u0131n son k\u0131s\u0131mlar\u0131nda, 129 y\u0131l &ouml;nce verildi\u011fi bildirilen bir Apollon kehaneti, giri\u015f k\u0131sm\u0131yla birlikte al\u0131nt\u0131lanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Giri\u015f k\u0131sm\u0131nda Sidymal\u0131lara kehaneti getirenlerin Eupolemos ve Aristonymos isimli iki Kalabatial\u0131 oldu\u011fu belirtilmektedir. Bu kehanet k\u0131sm\u0131, yaz\u0131t\u0131n genel tarihlemesine ve kullan\u0131lan eponim tarihleme unsuruna g&ouml;re, Lykia eyalet olmadan &ouml;nce, yani en ge&ccedil; \u0130.S. 42/3 y\u0131llar\u0131ndan olmal\u0131d\u0131r. Kehanetin kayna\u011f\u0131 &ccedil;o\u011fu ara\u015ft\u0131rmac\u0131 taraf\u0131ndan Patara olarak kabul edilse de, Sidymal\u0131lara kehaneti getirenlerin neden Kalabatial\u0131lar oldu\u011fu ya da bu i\u015flemde nas\u0131l bir rol &uuml;stlendikleri anla\u015f\u0131lamamaktad\u0131r. Dahas\u0131 kehanet kayna\u011f\u0131n\u0131n Kalabatia olmamas\u0131 i&ccedil;in de herhangi bir neden bulunmamaktad\u0131r, bilakis kehaneti getirenlerin Kalabatial\u0131 olmas\u0131 da ilk etapta buna i\u015faret etmektedir. Sidyma&rsquo;dan \u0130.S. 2-3 yy&rsquo;lara ait baz\u0131 yaz\u0131tlar kentte bir kehanet i\u015flemi oldu\u011funu g&ouml;stermektedir. Bu da vaktiyle ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z olan Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n, imparatorluk d&ouml;nemi i&ccedil;lerinde Sidyma teritoryumuna dahil edilmi\u015f olabilece\u011fine i\u015faret edebilir. Sonu&ccedil; olarak her iki yaz\u0131t da erken imparatorluk d&ouml;neminde ya da eyaletle\u015fme &ouml;ncesindeki Kalabatia vatanda\u015flar\u0131n\u0131 and\u0131\u011f\u0131ndan ve ikinci yaz\u0131tta Kalabatial\u0131lar\u0131n Sidyma&rsquo;ya kehanet iletme sorumlular\u0131 olarak g&ouml;r&uuml;nmelerinden dolay\u0131, Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n o d&ouml;nemlerde ba\u011f\u0131ms\u0131z olma ihtimalini ortaya koymaktad\u0131r. Kalabatia, Stadiasmus Maris Magni&rsquo;de bir liman olarak g&ouml;r&uuml;nmektedir. Fakat makalede hedef olarak &ouml;nerilen Bel Mahallesi&rsquo;ndeki kal\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131n mesafesi uygun olmakla birlikte k\u0131y\u0131da de\u011fildir. Bu nedenle Bel Mahallesi&rsquo;ne en yak\u0131n koylarda da inceleme yap\u0131lm\u0131\u015f ve g&uuml;neydo\u011fusundaki koyda ana yerle\u015fimle ba\u011flant\u0131l\u0131 Gavur Kalesi olarak adland\u0131r\u0131lan bir liman yap\u0131s\u0131 oldu\u011fu tespit edilmi\u015ftir. Yazar, Kalabatia&rsquo;n\u0131n hem Bel Mahallesi&rsquo;ndeki kal\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131 hem de Gavur Kalesi&rsquo;ni kapsayan bir yerle\u015fim olabilece\u011fini &ouml;nermekle birlikte, bu durumun Stadiasmus Maris Magni&rsquo;deki di\u011fer liman yerle\u015fimlerinin lokalizasyonlar\u0131n\u0131n da yeniden de\u011ferlendirilmesi gerektirece\u011fini de vurgulam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Makalenin son k\u0131sm\u0131nda ise, kay\u0131p blok &uuml;zerindeki yakla\u015f\u0131k 20-23 harflik bo\u015flu\u011fun k\u0131smen Kalabatia ile doldurulmas\u0131 durumunda, geriye kalan k\u0131s\u0131mda neler olabilece\u011fine dair &ouml;neriler sunulmaktad\u0131r. Bu &ouml;nerilerden bir tanesi Lykia&rsquo;n\u0131n federal d&ouml;neminden de bilinen Kragos b&ouml;lgesidir. Fakat her durumda ilgili bo\u015flu\u011fun tamamlanmas\u0131 kesin bir \u015fekilde yap\u0131lamayacak durumdad\u0131r.<br>\n________________________________________________________________<br>\nThe block recording the destination of the road from Sidyma in the Patarean monument of roads is today lost. The destination was restored as Kalaba(n/t)tia, which was identified with Sancakl\u0131 Port. This restoration seems deficient or incorrect, since the distance given from Sidyma to the lost destination is ca. 4,5 km, while the actual distance between Sidyma and Sancakl\u0131 Port is ca. 7-8 km and Kalabatia can fill only half of the lacuna. It is emphasized that the theory concerning a siege of Sidyma, which is deduced from this restoration, cannot be justified. The evidence concerning Kalabatia&rsquo;s political status might indicate an independence during the early empire or earlier. The author suggests that the ruins in Bel, located at ca. 4,5 km from Sidyma to the south, were probably the destination, the author also questions if Kalabatia could be localized in Bel. At the end is an appendix on Kragos.</p>", 
    "language": "eng", 
    "title": "An Investigation around Kragos in Lycia: The Question of Sidyma and Kalabatia", 
    "license": {
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    "journal": {
      "volume": "22", 
      "pages": "259-296", 
      "title": "Adalya"
    }, 
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    "keywords": [
      "Sidyma", 
      "Kalabatia", 
      "Lycia"
    ], 
    "publication_date": "2019-10-15", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "orcid": "0000-0002-8568-0222", 
        "affiliation": "Akdeniz University", 
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