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Potential adaptive divergence between subspecies and populations of snapdragon plants inferred from QST – FST comparisons

Sara Marin; Anaïs Gibert; Juliette Archambeau; Vincent Bonhomme; Mylène Lascoste; Benoit Pujol

Phenotypic divergence among natural populations can be explained by natural selection or by neutral processes such as drift. Many examples in the literature compare putatively neutral (FST) and quantitative genetic (QST) differentiation in multiple populations to assess their evolutionary signature and identify candidate traits involved with local adaptation. Investigating these signatures in closely related or recently diversified species has the potential to shed light on the divergence processes acting at the interspecific level. Here, we conducted this comparison in two subspecies of snapdragon plants (eight populations of Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus and five populations of A. m. striatum) in a common garden experiment. We also tested whether altitude was involved with population phenotypic divergence. Our results identified candidate phenological and morphological traits involved with local adaptation. Most of these traits were identified in one subspecies but not the other. Phenotypic divergence increased with altitude for a few biomass-related traits, but only in A. m. striatum. These traits therefore potentially reflect A. m. striatum adaptation to altitude. Our findings imply that adaptive processes potentially differ at the scale of A. majus subspecies.

This article has been peer-reviewed and recommended by Peer Community In Evolutionary Biology (https://doi.org/10.24072/pci.evolbiol.100097) Data and R code and protocols can be found in the code and data folder (readme file, data folder, R folder, analysis file, remake file) datafolder includes csv data files PCI Evol Biol main preprint pdf and supplementary pdf La TeX template code can be found in the code and data folder (manuscript folder) Document showing changes made to the text on version 3 can be found in track changes format (Marin_et_al_V3_REV2_TRACK-CHANGES_Potential adaptive divergence.docx) PCI evol biol template pdf V3 preprint (Marin_et_al_V3_REV2_Potential adaptive divergence.pdf) Response to reviewers corresponding to the second revision (response_to_reviewers_Marin_et_al_V3_REV2_Potential adaptive divergence.docx)
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