Journal article Open Access

Effects of Metal Ions, Metal, and Metal Oxide Particles on the Synthesis of Hydrochars

Saadattalab,Vahid; Wang,Xia; Szego, Anthony E.; Hedin, Niklas

Global concerns regarding climate change and the energy crisis have stimulated, among other things, research on renewable and sustainable materials. In relation to that, hydrothermal carbonization of wet biomass has been shown to be a low-cost method for the production of hydrochars. Such hydrochars can be refined into materials that can be used in water purification, for CO2 capture, and
in the energy sector. Here, we review the use of metal ions and particles to catalyze the formation of hydrochars and related hybrid
materials. First, the effects of using silver, cobalt, tellurium, copper ions, and particles on the hydrothermal carbonization of simple sugars and biomass are discussed. Second, we discuss the structural effects of iron ions and particles on the hydrochars in conjunction with their catalytic effects on the carbonization. Among the catalysts, iron ions or oxides have low cost and allow magnetic features to be introduced in carbon-containing hybrid materials, which seems to be promising for commercial applications

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