Poster Open Access

Beehive panel paintings: Material characterisation

Retko, Klara; Kavčič, Maša; Legan, Lea; Kranjc, Domen; Penko, Ana; Tavzes, Črtomir; Ropret, Polonca


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Four different painted beehive panels dating from the beginning of the 19th to the second half of the&lt;br&gt;
20th century were selected for this study. This type of paintings was predominantly created by the lower&lt;br&gt;
(rural) classes and as such represents a variety of folk art [1]. This panels were traditionally placed on the&lt;br&gt;
front side of the hives. They were exposed outdoors, subjected to exterior environmental factors and&lt;br&gt;
therefore experienced degradation, which resulted in fading, loss of paint strata, etc. Although beehive&lt;br&gt;
panel paintings are specific and unique for Slovene ethnic territory, in-depth analytical studies regarding&lt;br&gt;
their material composition has not yet been published.&lt;br&gt;
Due to restrictions of the sampling, majority of the investigation on material composition within this&lt;br&gt;
study was performed in a non-invasive manner utilising reflection infrared and Raman spectroscopy. For a&lt;br&gt;
more detailed investigation micro-transflection FTIR spectroscopy on a diamond-coated metallic stick was&lt;br&gt;
employed on several areas of the paintings. On two panels, where sampling was allowed, we performed a&lt;br&gt;
more detailed study on samples&amp;rsquo; cross-sections, which contained all stratigraphically present layers&lt;br&gt;
(wooden support, decorative layers). Paint layers are composed of historically commonly available&lt;br&gt;
pigments such as iron oxides, cinnabar/vermilion, lead white, carbon-based black, Prussian blue, etc. The&lt;br&gt;
main binder was determined to be composed of lipids which correspond with written archive texts stating&lt;br&gt;
that this type of paintings was usually done in oil. Two of the panels were also coated with a triterpenic&lt;br&gt;
resin. The main differences in the composition were observed for the panel from second half of the&lt;br&gt;
20th century, where the presence of synthetic organic red pigment PR3 and zinc white was determined.&lt;br&gt;
Furthermore, the presence of beeswax at the back of the panels was also detected, as well as some of the&lt;br&gt;
degradation products, such as carboxylates and oxalates.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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