Poster Open Access

Beehive panel paintings: Material characterisation

Retko, Klara; Kavčič, Maša; Legan, Lea; Kranjc, Domen; Penko, Ana; Tavzes, Črtomir; Ropret, Polonca


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    "description": "<p>Four different painted beehive panels dating from the beginning of the 19th to the second half of the<br>\n20th century were selected for this study. This type of paintings was predominantly created by the lower<br>\n(rural) classes and as such represents a variety of folk art [1]. This panels were traditionally placed on the<br>\nfront side of the hives. They were exposed outdoors, subjected to exterior environmental factors and<br>\ntherefore experienced degradation, which resulted in fading, loss of paint strata, etc. Although beehive<br>\npanel paintings are specific and unique for Slovene ethnic territory, in-depth analytical studies regarding<br>\ntheir material composition has not yet been published.<br>\nDue to restrictions of the sampling, majority of the investigation on material composition within this<br>\nstudy was performed in a non-invasive manner utilising reflection infrared and Raman spectroscopy. For a<br>\nmore detailed investigation micro-transflection FTIR spectroscopy on a diamond-coated metallic stick was<br>\nemployed on several areas of the paintings. On two panels, where sampling was allowed, we performed a<br>\nmore detailed study on samples&rsquo; cross-sections, which contained all stratigraphically present layers<br>\n(wooden support, decorative layers). Paint layers are composed of historically commonly available<br>\npigments such as iron oxides, cinnabar/vermilion, lead white, carbon-based black, Prussian blue, etc. The<br>\nmain binder was determined to be composed of lipids which correspond with written archive texts stating<br>\nthat this type of paintings was usually done in oil. Two of the panels were also coated with a triterpenic<br>\nresin. The main differences in the composition were observed for the panel from second half of the<br>\n20th century, where the presence of synthetic organic red pigment PR3 and zinc white was determined.<br>\nFurthermore, the presence of beeswax at the back of the panels was also detected, as well as some of the<br>\ndegradation products, such as carboxylates and oxalates.</p>", 
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        "title": "Renewable materials and healthy environments research and innovation centre of excellence", 
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        "program": "H2020", 
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    "publication_date": "2019-05-07", 
    "creators": [
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Retko, Klara"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Kav\u010di\u010d, Ma\u0161a"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Legan, Lea"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Kranjc, Domen"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Penko, Ana"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Tavzes, \u010crtomir"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": "Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia", 
        "name": "Ropret, Polonca"
      }
    ], 
    "meeting": {
      "dates": "7-10 May, 2019", 
      "title": "Technart 2019", 
      "url": "https://www.uantwerpen.be/en/conferences/technart-2019/programme/", 
      "session": "Poster session 1", 
      "place": "University of Antwerp, Flemish Research Centre for the Arts", 
      "session_part": "P2\u201074"
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