Journal article Open Access
Khadka, Niranjan; Liu, Xijie; Zander, Hans; Swami, Jaiti; Rogers, Evan; Lempka, Scott F.; Bikson, Marom
HOW TO REFERENCE OUR WORK (SEE THE JOURNAL OF NEURAL ENGINEERING DOI)
This open-source model is made available based on Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. Please use the following citation when referring to our open-source model.
Khadka, N., Liu, X., Zander, H., Swami, J., Rogers, E., Lempka, S., Bikson, M., 2020. Realistic anatomically detailed open-source spinal cord stimulation (RADO-SCS) model. J Neural Eng. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab8344
Before you download the RADO-SCS model for simulation, we suggest to read “forward modeling workflow for current flow models” which will provide detailed help with a general FEM modeling Pipeline using CAD-derived/MRI-derived models. The current flow modeling pipelines have been published many times in our prior publications (link here). When ready, you can download the latest version of the RADO-SCS model ( V 3.0) and use it for your exploratory clinical or academic research.
1. Download all STL files as they represent realistic and anatomically detailed T9-T11 level spinal tissues, vertebraes, IV discs, soft-tissues, vasculatures, and clinical leads (pre-positioned). If you don't need all the detailed tissues, you can remove them from your final model. 2. If you want to position the SCS leads in different location, import all STLs using CAD software like SolidWorks 2016 or later (recommended), Abacus, Mimics, etc., and re-position the leads. 3. Save you final model files and import them either in free or commercial meshing software. We recommend Simpleware or other powerful meshing software because the model has sub-millimeter resolution. 4. After the model is meshed, import the model into finite element method (FEM) or finite element analysis (FEA) current flow simulating software such as COMSOL, Abaqus, Mimics, etc. 5. If interested in fiber activation thresholds simulation, export the extracellular voltages calculated from the FEM model and couple it into the NEURON/ Matlab modeling platform.
NOTES AND DISCLAIMERS
Version 3.0 is the most updated version of the RADO-SCS model.
RADO-SCS does not include a pathological human spinal cord, but there are plans to incorporate this in future versions.
This open-source model only includes CAD derived model files with pre-positioned SCS leads. However, the users can change the lead position using commercial or open-source CAD-software as their need.
RADO-SCS is not a modeling open-source software. It is a CAD-derived model of realistic human spinal anatomy which can be downloaded and simulated for educational, clinical, or exploratory purposes. See the modeling pipeline on how to use the open-source RADO-SCS for numerical simulation.
There is a plan to develop an open-source current flow modeling platform using the most-updated version of the RADO-SCS model in future.