Report Open Access
This country report includes a detailed analysis of reception policies, practices and humanitarian responses from state actors and non-state agencies in Turkey. Data on policies were retrieved through desk research on policy papers and documents at national and sub-national levels, building on the international and EU framework. The analysis of secondary data includes the elaboration of maps of reception policies, practices and humanitarian responses and new typologies of these policies, practices and responses. Evidence on existing practices and responses at the grassroots level have been gathered through interviews and roundtable discussions with key-informants and gatekeepers such as national/local authorities, and NGO representatives. The report also includes the analysis of migrants’ perceptions, actions and reactions to reception policies and practices in Turkey.
The main framework of reception regulations in Turkey is drawn by the Law on Foreigners and International Protection and the Temporary Protection Regulation, both of which were put into force in 2014. Both documents include provisions about housing, education, labour market, allowances, health services and information/counselling services. The definition and scope of ‘reception’ in Turkish legislation includes various material conditions including housing, food and clothing provided in kind, or as financial allowances or in vouchers, or a combination of the three, and a daily allowance. Reception also covers matters of education, basic health care and accommodation which ought to be provided during the period of reception. Similar to the EU legislation, the time frame of ‘reception’ is not clearly defined in the Turkish legislation. However, there is an implicit definition: reception starts as soon as the border of a given state has been crossed and an application for international protection has been made. It ends either with the “effective expulsion”, “repatriation”, “forced/assisted return” of unsuccessful applicants or with the acceptance of their request for protection which, in the terminology of RESPOND, makes them subject to ‘integration’