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Electrochemical low-frequency impedance spectroscopy algorith for diagnostics of PEM fuel cell degradation

Ivar J. Halvorsen; Ivan Pivac; Dario Bezmalinovic; Frano Barbir; Federico Zenith


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;In order to estimate fuel-cell degradation status on-line and inexpensively, a diagnostic technique based on relay feedback is developed. The technique can obtain critical parameters within seconds of start-up and is robust to measurement bias.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a popular laboratory technique to perform diagnostics on electrochemical systems such as fuel cells, but its application to real-life fuel-cell systems is difficult because of the size and cost of the apparatus. In this study, we present a more detailed equivalent-circuit model for a PEM fuel cell, able to explain the positive reactance shown at low frequencies.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Some of these characteristics, measured at several stages during an Accelerated Stress Test (AST), progress gradually with catalyst degradation, providing an effective prognostic variable. In order to measure these characteristics, a relay-based feedback excitation algorithm is developed to estimate the low-frequency intercept in the Nyquist plane of the cell impedance without resorting to a full-fledged EIS.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;The simulations indicate that the algorithm converges to an estimate within about 5 seconds, and is robust to bias. The algorithm can be run within the standard control system that fuel cells are usually equipped with, with no additional hardware.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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