Journal article Open Access
The article considers the problematic issues of the functioning of cryptocurrency in Ukraine. The risks that provoke cryptocurrency as a tool for the money laundering and the financing terrorism in Ukraine are studied. The level of crime and the use of cryptocurrency in the sphere of money laundering are determined. Topical issues affecting the features of the detection and investigation of a crime are considered.
Anti-money laundering law of Ukraine openly conflate money laundering (which is concerned with source of funds) with terrorism financing (which is concerned with destination of funds) when regulating the financial system. Furthermore, FATF report on terrorism financing noted the importance of links between financial tools and wider counter-terrorist activity to combat terrorist financing.
Terrorism, being a socially dangerous and difficult to predict phenomenon, is changing its forms, methods, but the need for terrorist organizations to collect, move, and use money is always urgent. The legalization (laundering) of proceeds of crime, as well as the financing terrorism, poses a serious threat to national security of Ukraine and its financial system.
The use of computer technologies to commit crimes increases their social security, generates new ways of committing them, and simplifies the very process of committing and masking their tracks. Cryptocurrencies are popular on the dark web because they provide a convenient method of obfuscating identities and transaction details. In addition, the absence of rules for exchanges and points of sale, the obligation to identify the e-wallet owner and a clear legal regulation of the use of cryptocurrencies in general, create favorable conditions for criminals. Investigation of such crimes creates considerable difficulties, given the lack of capabilities of law enforcement agencies from the current level of technological and software criminal activity. The author also found out the advantages of such a currency, which determine its use by criminals, and examined possible ways to counter and combat such crime.