Book section Open Access
In this chapter I examine the theoretical underpinnings of conventional research evaluation systems based on production and citation bibliographic indicators and discuss why they are not suitable for appraising research in a context of sustainability. I argue that evaluations based on these indicators respond to a framework that overlooks the relationship between science and grand social, economic, and environmental challenges, which do not allow them to capture the concept of sustainability. Based on my experience and that of colleagues in Colciencias, I also discuss the barriers that policy makers wanting to implement radical changes in national research evaluation systems face, suggesting ways in which these barriers may be overcome. I maintain that experimenting with novel evaluation frameworks, such as RQ+, is needed to develop evaluations that respond to the increased societal demands from science while at the same time accounting for conventional research evaluations.