Journal article Open Access
Narvaja de Arnoux, Elvira
In grammars associated to the development and consolidation of national States, linguistic difference is presented in discursive zones that point out what differs from the norm established in the text, thereby introducing other varieties and registers. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Argentina, a large number of grammars for secondary schools was published, in the context of transformations driven by massive immigration. The authors of many of these grammars were Spaniards who had emigrated due to political reasons and were hired as teachers at national schools by a State seeking to impose a Hispanicizing norm that would integrate a noticeably diverse population. Firstly, this article discusses, from the standpoint of glottopolitics, the grammars of the period, the status of their authors, the representation of their intended recipient and the dominant norms. Next, it contrasts the grammars written by two Spaniards: Antonio Atienza y Medrano (1896) and Juan José García Velloso (1897), focusing on their treatment of linguistic difference. Finally, it discusses the work of another Spaniard, Emilio Vera y González (1902-1903) and the work of Peruvian exile Clorinda Matto de Turner (1897), analyzing how they bring in differences other than those usually set forth or endow prescriptive statements with modality through various strategies.