Journal article Open Access

Effects of a Smartphone-Based Approach–Avoidance Intervention on Chocolate Craving and Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial

Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Dinic, Radomir; Blechert, Jens

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    <subfield code="a">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</subfield>
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    <subfield code="c">2019-03-24</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Background:&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;Repeatedly pushing high-calorie food stimuli away based on joystick movements has been found to reduce approach biases towards these stimuli. Some studies also found that such avoidance trainings reduced consumption of high-calorie foods.&lt;/p&gt;


&lt;p&gt;To make such interventions suitable for daily use, this preregistered study tested effects of a smartphone-based approach&amp;ndash;avoidance intervention on chocolate craving and consumption.&lt;/p&gt;


&lt;p&gt;Within a ten-day period, participants (n = 105, 86% female) either performed five sessions during which they continuously avoided (i.e., swiped away/upwards) chocolate stimuli (experimental group, n = 35), performed five sessions during which they approached and avoided chocolate stimuli equally often (placebo control group, n = 35), or did not perform any training sessions (inactive control group, n = 35). Training effects were measured during laboratory sessions before and after the intervention period and further continuously through daily ecological momentary assessment (EMA).&lt;/p&gt;


&lt;p&gt;Self-reported chocolate craving and consumption as well as body fat mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-measurement across all groups. EMA reports evidenced no differences in chocolate craving and consumption between intervention days and rest days as a function of group.&lt;/p&gt;


&lt;p&gt;A smartphone-based approach&amp;ndash;avoidance training did not affect eating-related and anthropometric measures over and above measurement-based changes in the current study. Future controlled studies need to examine whether other techniques of modifying food approach tendencies show an add-on benefit over conventional, monitoring-based intervention effects. Clinical Trial:;/p&gt;</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Schoen Clinic Roseneck, Prien am Chiemsee, Germany</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Richard, Anna</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">Fachhochschule Salzburg, Austria</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Dinic, Radomir</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">University of Salzburg, Austria</subfield>
    <subfield code="0">(orcid)0000-0002-3820-109X</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Blechert, Jens</subfield>
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    <subfield code="u">LMU München, Germany</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">Meule, Adrian</subfield>
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    <subfield code="a">10.2196/12298</subfield>
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  <datafield tag="245" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
    <subfield code="a">Effects of a Smartphone-Based Approach–Avoidance Intervention on Chocolate Craving and Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial</subfield>
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    <subfield code="c">639445</subfield>
    <subfield code="a">Transdiagnostic views on eating disorders and obesity and new approaches for treatment</subfield>
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