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Effects of a Smartphone-Based Approach–Avoidance Intervention on Chocolate Craving and Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial

Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Dinic, Radomir; Blechert, Jens


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{
  "description": "<p>Background:</p>\n\n<p>Repeatedly pushing high-calorie food stimuli away based on joystick movements has been found to reduce approach biases towards these stimuli. Some studies also found that such avoidance trainings reduced consumption of high-calorie foods.</p>\n\n<p>Objective:</p>\n\n<p>To make such interventions suitable for daily use, this preregistered study tested effects of a smartphone-based approach&ndash;avoidance intervention on chocolate craving and consumption.</p>\n\n<p>Methods:</p>\n\n<p>Within a ten-day period, participants (n = 105, 86% female) either performed five sessions during which they continuously avoided (i.e., swiped away/upwards) chocolate stimuli (experimental group, n = 35), performed five sessions during which they approached and avoided chocolate stimuli equally often (placebo control group, n = 35), or did not perform any training sessions (inactive control group, n = 35). Training effects were measured during laboratory sessions before and after the intervention period and further continuously through daily ecological momentary assessment (EMA).</p>\n\n<p>Results:</p>\n\n<p>Self-reported chocolate craving and consumption as well as body fat mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-measurement across all groups. EMA reports evidenced no differences in chocolate craving and consumption between intervention days and rest days as a function of group.</p>\n\n<p>Conclusions:</p>\n\n<p>A smartphone-based approach&ndash;avoidance training did not affect eating-related and anthropometric measures over and above measurement-based changes in the current study. Future controlled studies need to examine whether other techniques of modifying food approach tendencies show an add-on benefit over conventional, monitoring-based intervention effects. Clinical Trial: https://aspredicted.org/pt9df.pdf</p>", 
  "license": "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode", 
  "creator": [
    {
      "affiliation": "LMU M\u00fcnchen, Germany", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6639-8977", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Meule, Adrian"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Schoen Clinic Roseneck, Prien am Chiemsee, Germany", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3926-8533", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Richard, Anna"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "Fachhochschule Salzburg, Austria", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3310-8520", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Dinic, Radomir"
    }, 
    {
      "affiliation": "University of Salzburg, Austria", 
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3820-109X", 
      "@type": "Person", 
      "name": "Blechert, Jens"
    }
  ], 
  "headline": "Effects of a Smartphone-Based Approach\u2013Avoidance Intervention on Chocolate Craving and Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial", 
  "image": "https://zenodo.org/static/img/logos/zenodo-gradient-round.svg", 
  "datePublished": "2019-03-24", 
  "url": "https://zenodo.org/record/3530760", 
  "@context": "https://schema.org/", 
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.2196/12298", 
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.2196/12298", 
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
  "name": "Effects of a Smartphone-Based Approach\u2013Avoidance Intervention on Chocolate Craving and Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial"
}
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