Journal article Open Access

NEPHROLITHIASIS: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT CONCEPTS

Shafiya Begum, Mohammed Madani*, Dr. Mohsina Hassan

Nephrolithiasis is a solid crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. It can be caused by both environmental and metabolic factors. A large number of people around the world are suffering from this disease. The lifetime prevalence of nephrolithiasis is approximately 10% for men and 5% for women and more than $2billion is spent on its treatment each year. Calcium, Uric acid, struvite, cystine and drug-induced stones are the types of stones in nephrolithiasis. Approximately 75% of the stones are calcium based, 10% uric acid, 10% struvite and less than 1% accounts for cysteine and drug induced stones. The sequence of events that triggers the formation of stones can be classified into four stages namely – Nucleation, Growth, Aggregation and Retention. Nephrolithiasis is caused due to multiple risk factors. Although risk factors do not have a direct cause of the disease, but in some way or the other they are associated with it. The management of nephrolithiasis needs to be individualized. Clinical presentation, proper history and laboratory tests help to determine whether urgent surgical/medical treatment is needed. The aim of this review is to provide compiled up-to-date information on nephrolithiasis, its types, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations and preventive approaches, including treatment.

Keywords: Nephrolithiasis, Supersaturation, Nidi, Nidus, Acetohydroxamic Acid, Tiopronin, Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

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