Journal article Open Access

Formalized and Unformalized Fundamental Rights: the Experience of Ukraine and Germany

M.H. Kravchenko

The article is devoted to the study of the doctrine of formalized and non-formalized basic human rights in Ukraine and Germany.

To achieve this research goal, the following research objectives have been identified: 1) to outline a subsystem of formalized fundamental human rights and freedoms in accordance with the German fundamental doctrine of fundamental human rights; 2) identify the subsystem of unformalized basic human rights and freedoms in accordance with the German fundamental doctrine of fundamental human rights, to name the problems of its functioning; 3) to analyze the national doctrine of formalized and non-formalized human rights and freedoms, to make proposals on the development of the theory and practice of affirmation and maintenance of human rights and freedoms in Ukraine.

As a result of the study, the following conclusions are made: a) It is found that one of the dimensions of the existence of the human rights and freedoms system in Germany is its division into: formalized (written) and unformalized (unwritten) human rights. However, both types of human rights have equal constitutional status; b) It is stated that the formation of the human rights system, both formalized and unformalized, is not monopolized by the state. Legal science is actively involved in the formation of this system. Scientists' conclusions and suggestions, both on the list and on the content of individual human rights, are applied at the same level as the legislation in the exercise of a specific human right or freedom in Germany; c) it is determined that the list of unformalized (unwritten) human rights in Germany is open, as new informal human rights can emerge as a result of the activities of both the judiciary and the state; d) it is stated that in Ukraine only formalized human rights that have a normatively defined mechanism of their realization are able to be asserted and secured by the Ukrainian state. Informal rights can exist only in the form of scientific theories and concepts, but do not have a real dimension of existence. The directions for the development of the theory and practice of affirmation and maintenance of informal human rights and freedoms in Ukraine have been determined.

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