Conference paper Open Access

A Blockchain based Witness Model for Trustworthy Cloud Service Level Agreement Enforcement

Zhou, Huan; Ouyang, Xue; Ren, Zhijie; Su, Jinshu; de Laat, Cees; Zhao, Zhiming


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  <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.5281/zenodo.3471494</identifier>
  <creators>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Zhou, Huan</creatorName>
      <givenName>Huan</givenName>
      <familyName>Zhou</familyName>
      <affiliation>University of Amsterdam</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Ouyang, Xue</creatorName>
      <givenName>Xue</givenName>
      <familyName>Ouyang</familyName>
      <affiliation>National University of Defense Technology</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Ren, Zhijie</creatorName>
      <givenName>Zhijie</givenName>
      <familyName>Ren</familyName>
      <affiliation>Delft University of Technology</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Su, Jinshu</creatorName>
      <givenName>Jinshu</givenName>
      <familyName>Su</familyName>
      <affiliation>National University of Defense Technology</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>de Laat, Cees</creatorName>
      <givenName>Cees</givenName>
      <familyName>de Laat</familyName>
      <affiliation>University of Amsterdam</affiliation>
    </creator>
    <creator>
      <creatorName>Zhao, Zhiming</creatorName>
      <givenName>Zhiming</givenName>
      <familyName>Zhao</familyName>
      <nameIdentifier nameIdentifierScheme="ORCID" schemeURI="http://orcid.org/">0000-0002-6717-9418</nameIdentifier>
      <affiliation>University of Amsterdam</affiliation>
    </creator>
  </creators>
  <titles>
    <title>A Blockchain based Witness Model for Trustworthy Cloud Service Level Agreement Enforcement</title>
  </titles>
  <publisher>Zenodo</publisher>
  <publicationYear>2019</publicationYear>
  <subjects>
    <subject>Blockchain</subject>
    <subject>Cloud</subject>
  </subjects>
  <dates>
    <date dateType="Issued">2019-04-27</date>
  </dates>
  <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Text">Conference paper</resourceType>
  <alternateIdentifiers>
    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="url">https://zenodo.org/record/3471494</alternateIdentifier>
  </alternateIdentifiers>
  <relatedIdentifiers>
    <relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="DOI" relationType="IsVersionOf">10.5281/zenodo.3471493</relatedIdentifier>
  </relatedIdentifiers>
  <version>Camera ready</version>
  <rightsList>
    <rights rightsURI="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</rights>
    <rights rightsURI="info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess">Open Access</rights>
  </rightsList>
  <descriptions>
    <description descriptionType="Abstract">&lt;p&gt;Traditional cloud Service Level Agreement (SLA)&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;suffers from lacking a trustworthy platform for automatic&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;enforcement. The emerging blockchain technique brings in an&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;immutable solution for tracking transactions among business&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;partners. However, it is still very challenging to prove the credibility&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;of possible violations in the SLA before recording them onto&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;the blockchain. To tackle this challenge, we propose a witness&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;model using game theory and the smart contract techniques.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;The proposed model extends the existing service model with&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;a new role called &amp;ldquo;witness&amp;rdquo; for detecting and reporting service&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;violations. Witnesses gain revenue as an incentive for performing&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;these duties, and the payoff function is carefully designed in a way&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;that trustworthiness is guaranteed: in order to get the maximum&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;profit, the witness has to always tell the truth. This is analyzed&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;and proved through game theory using the Nash equilibrium&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;principle. In addition, an unbiased sortition algorithm is proposed&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;to ensure the randomness of the independent witnesses selection&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;from the decentralized witness pool, to avoid possible unfairness&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;or collusion. An auditing mechanism is also introduced in&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;the paper to detect potential irrational or malicious witnesses.&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;We have prototyped the system leveraging the smart contracts&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;of Ethereum blockchain. Experimental results demonstrate the&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;feasibility of the proposed model and indicate good performance&lt;/p&gt;

&lt;p&gt;in accordance with the design expectations.&lt;/p&gt;</description>
  </descriptions>
  <fundingReferences>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/654182/">654182</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Environmental Research Infrastructures Providing Shared Solutions for Science and Society</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/643963/">643963</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>Software Workbench for Interactive, Time Critical and Highly self-adaptive cloud applications</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
    <fundingReference>
      <funderName>European Commission</funderName>
      <funderIdentifier funderIdentifierType="Crossref Funder ID">10.13039/501100000780</funderIdentifier>
      <awardNumber awardURI="info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/825134/">825134</awardNumber>
      <awardTitle>smART socIal media eCOsytstem in a blockchaiN Federated environment</awardTitle>
    </fundingReference>
  </fundingReferences>
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