Conference paper Open Access

A Blockchain based Witness Model for Trustworthy Cloud Service Level Agreement Enforcement

Zhou, Huan; Ouyang, Xue; Ren, Zhijie; Su, Jinshu; de Laat, Cees; Zhao, Zhiming


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        <foaf:name>Zhao, Zhiming</foaf:name>
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    <dct:title>A Blockchain based Witness Model for Trustworthy Cloud Service Level Agreement Enforcement</dct:title>
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    <dcat:keyword>Blockchain</dcat:keyword>
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    <dct:description>&lt;p&gt;Traditional cloud Service Level Agreement (SLA)&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;suffers from lacking a trustworthy platform for automatic&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;enforcement. The emerging blockchain technique brings in an&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;immutable solution for tracking transactions among business&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;partners. However, it is still very challenging to prove the credibility&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;of possible violations in the SLA before recording them onto&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;the blockchain. To tackle this challenge, we propose a witness&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;model using game theory and the smart contract techniques.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The proposed model extends the existing service model with&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;a new role called &amp;ldquo;witness&amp;rdquo; for detecting and reporting service&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;violations. Witnesses gain revenue as an incentive for performing&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;these duties, and the payoff function is carefully designed in a way&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;that trustworthiness is guaranteed: in order to get the maximum&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;profit, the witness has to always tell the truth. This is analyzed&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;and proved through game theory using the Nash equilibrium&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;principle. In addition, an unbiased sortition algorithm is proposed&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;to ensure the randomness of the independent witnesses selection&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;from the decentralized witness pool, to avoid possible unfairness&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;or collusion. An auditing mechanism is also introduced in&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;the paper to detect potential irrational or malicious witnesses.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;We have prototyped the system leveraging the smart contracts&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;of Ethereum blockchain. Experimental results demonstrate the&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;feasibility of the proposed model and indicate good performance&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;in accordance with the design expectations.&lt;/p&gt;</dct:description>
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