Journal article Open Access

Sulfur- and nitrogen-containing porous donor-acceptor polymers as real-time optical and chemical sensors

Kochergin, Yaroslav S.; Noda, Yu; Kulkarni, Ranjit; Škodáková, Klára; Tarábek, Ján; Schmidt, Johannes; Bojdys, Michael J.


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    <subfield code="a">&lt;p&gt;Fully aromatic, organic polymers have the advantage of being composed from light, abundant elements, and are hailed as candidates in electronic and optical devices &amp;ldquo;beyond silicon&amp;rdquo;, yet, applications that make use of their &amp;pi;-conjugated backbone and optical bandgap are lacking outside of heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we use a series of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing porous polymers (SNPs) as real-time optical and electronic sensors reversibly triggered and re-set by acid and ammonia vapors. Our SNPs incorporate donor-acceptor and donor-donor motifs in extended networks and enable us to study the changes in bulk conductivity, optical bandgap, and fluorescence life-times as a function of &amp;pi;-electron de-/localization in the pristine and protonated states. Interestingly, we find that protonated donor-acceptor polymers show a decrease of the optical bandgap by 0.42 eV to 0.76 eV and longer fluorescence life-times. In contrast, protonation of a donor-donor polymer does not affect its bandgap; however, it leads to an increase of electrical conductivity by up to 25-fold and shorter fluorescence life-times. The design strategies highlighted in this study open new avenues towards useful chemical switches and sensors based on modular purely organic materials.&lt;/p&gt;</subfield>
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